Latin Derivatives
- V -

vacillo, vacillare, vacillavi, vacillatus - to sway, stagger

vacillate - to waver (mentally or physically): What’s wrong with changing your mind, again and again if necessary, as new information becomes available? If that’s vacillation, let’s hope that we all have the courage to vacillate. Also: vacillation, vacillator, vacillatory (vacillating, marked by vacillation). 

vacuus, vacua, vacuum - empty, void, free

vacuous - 1. (said of a person) having no ideas or intelligence; (said of a thing) showing a lack of ideas or intelligence: It’s time for a change when life seems like one vacuous freshman composition after another. 2. purposeless, having no direction; idle. Also: vacuity, vacuousness, vacuum. [vacuitas, vacuitatis, f. - freedom, immunity] 

vagor, vagari, vagatus sum - to wander, roam, ramble

vagary - 1) an odd, erratic, or unpredictable action or event: Each of us strives to survive, even flourish, amidst the vagaries of human existence. 2) an odd or whimsical idea. Also: vagarious (erratic, capricious). [vagus, vaga, vagum - wandering]

valeo, valere, valui, valiturus - to be well; to be strong; to be valid

ambivalence - uncertainty resulting from simultaneous conflicting feelings or desires: Paralyzed by ambivalence, she could neither support her husband nor intervene on behalf of the children. Also: ambivalency, ambivalent. [ambo, ambae, ambo - both] 

avail - (v.) to be of use in accomplishing an end; (n.) effective use; help; advantage: She wrote a letter, she phoned, she even made a personal visit, all to no avail. Also: avail oneself of (to take advantage of an opportunity). 

convalescence - progressive recovery of health and strength after illness or injury: The physical trauma had been severe, and convalescence was expected to take months. Also: convalesce, convalescent. [convalesco, convalescere, convalui - to regain strength or health, recover] 

prevail - 1) to be victorious; 2) to be or become the stronger or strongest: Cooler heads prevailed, and soon everyone had forgotten about the misunderstanding. Also: prevailer, prevailingness. [praevaleo, praevalere, praevalui - have superior power] 

prevalent - widespread, in general use or acceptance: Do the laws of a democracy reflect the prevalent morality or the morality of the powerful? Also: prevalence, prevalentness. [praevaleo, cf. prevail] 

unavailing - futile; useless; ineffectual: Frustrated by their unavailing efforts, the group met less and less often and eventually stopped meeting altogether. 

valedictorian - the student, usually the one of highest scholastic standing among the graduates, who delivers the farewell speech: In some schools the valedictorian is chosen according to several criteria, scholastic strength being one of them. Also: valediction (the act of saying farewell; a farewell), valedictory (said as a farewell; a farewell speech). [dico, dicere, dixi, dictus - to say; dictio, dictionis, f. - speaking; speech] 

valetudinarian - 1) an invalid; 2) a person who is too concerned about his poor health: Be optimistic about your health; valetudinarians just add stress to their list of ailments. (adj.) 1) in poor health; sickly; 2) excessively concerned about one’s poor health. Also: valetudinarianism, valetudinary (valetudinarian). [valesco, valescere - grow strong; valetudinarius, valetudinaria, valetudinarium - sickly; valetudinarium, valitudinari, n. - hospital; valetudo, valetudinis, f. - state of health, health]

vanus, vena, venum - empty, void

vain - 1) excessively proud; 2) unsuccessful, futile: In 1513, in a vain attempt to find a fountain of youth, Ponce de Leon led an expedition to Bimini, but landed instead in Florida. 3) having no real value or significance, worthless. Also: vainness, vanity. [vanum, vani, n. - nothingness, emptiness]

vapidus, vapida, vapidum - spiritless, flat

vapid - lacking spirit, dull: Awakening with a premonition of pedantic lectures and vapid discussions, she turned off the alarm and rolled over. Also: vapidity, vapidness. [vapor, vaporis, m. - vapor, steam] 

varius, varia, varium - changing, varying

variance - 1) difference; 2) disagreement: The two sides were at variance over the proposal to use force in Bosnia.  Also: variant (a different form; a different spelling of the same word). [vario, variare, variavi, variatus - change; vary] 

variegated - marked with spots, streaks, etc. of different colors: Do you prefer single-color flowers or the variegated varieties? Also: variegate (to make variegated); variegation. [ago, agere, egi, actus - do] 

vehemens, vehementis - violent, furious; ardent

vehement - 1. having or showing strong feeling, passionate: He lashed out against the majority in vehement defense of his friend, whom he knew to be innocent. 2. characterized by anger; violent. Also: vehemence. [vehementia, vehementiae, f. - violence, passion] 

veho, vehere, vexi, vectus - to carry

invective - (n.) a violent verbal attack; insult(s): In a passionate speech filled with praise and invective, the senator left no doubt about his position on crucial issues of domestic and foreign politics. (adj.) characterized by strong criticism, insults, etc. Also: invectiveness. [inveho, invehere, invexi, invectus - to bring in; (refl. or pass.) to attack] 

inveigh - to make a violent verbal attack; to rail: They accomplished little by inveighing against their enemies; polite, well-phrased questions would have been much more effective. [inveho, cf. invective] 

vendo, vendere, vendidi, venditus - to sell

vendor - person or organization that sells; seller: Her job involved getting merchandize from vendor to buyer in the most efficient manner. [vendibilis, vendibile - salable; venditio, venditionis, f. - sale, a selling; vendito, venditare, venditavi - to keep trying to sell; venditor, venditoris, m. - seller]

veneror, venerari, veneratus sum - to revere, reverence

venerate - to regard with great respect or reverence, to revere: Catholics are not polytheists; they venerate Mary and the saints, but they adore God alone. Also: venerable, venerability, venerableness, veneration, venerative, venerator. [venerator, veneratoris, m. - one who reveres or reverences; veneratio, venerationis, f. - reverence, profound respect] 

venia, veniae, f. - kindness, indulgence; forgiveness

venial - that may be forgiven or overlooked; pardonable, excusable: He hoped his forgetfulness would be reckoned as a venial offense. Also: veniality, venialness.

venio, venire, veni, ventus - to come

advent - a coming, arrival: In the twentieth century, with the advent of the automobile, the airplane, radio, and television, the world became a much smaller place. Also: adventive (not native; new to the environment) [adventus, adventus, m. - arrival, approach] 

adventitious - coming from without; extrinsic; additional; fortuitous: Sports seldom watched by anyone take on an adventitious excitement in the Olympics. Also: adventitiousness. [adventicius, adventicia, adventicium - coming from without] 

circumvent - 1) to get the better of by trickery: There will always be clever, selfish people who try, by hook or by crook, to circumvent the law. 2) to go around; 3) to encircle, surround. Also: circumventer, circumvention (the act of circumventing), circumventive (characterized by or inclined to circumvention), circumventor. [circumvenio, circumvenire, circumveni, circumventus - to surround, encircle; to cheat] 

contravene - to go against; conflict with; violate: Some argue that the law requiring seatbelts contravenes the constitutional freedom of the individual. Also: contravener, contravention (conflict, opposition, violation). [contra (prep. w/ acc.) - against] 

convene - (intrans.) to meet, assemble: This meeting is adjourned; we will convene tomorrow morning at 9 o'clock in the room across the hall. (trans.) to call together; to summon. Also: convenable, convener, convenor. [convenio, convenire, conveni, conventus - to come together, assemble] 

conventional - 1) customary; not unusual; ordinary: The coach insisted that his players wear their uniforms in the conventional manner. 2) nonnuclear; 3) of or pertaining to a convention. Also: conventionalism (tendency to follow conventional practices; something conventional), conventionalist (one who follows conventional usages), conventionality, conventionalization (the act of conventionalizing), conventionalize (to make conventional). [conventio, conventionis, f. - assembly; agreement] 

inventory - (n.) 1) a detailed list of goods (merchandise) on hand: If the inventory shows an oversupply of certain items, the manager puts these items on sale. 2) the act of making such a list; (v.) to make an inventory. [invenio, invenire, inveni, inventus - to come upon, find] 

intervene - 1) to come (be) between; 2) to help settle a dispute: Only after the internecine conflict had gone on for nearly four years did the United Nations intervene militarily in an effort to end the violence. Also: intervener, intervenient (intervening), intervenor, intervention, interventionism (the policy of intervening in the affairs of other states or nations), interventionist. [intervenio, intervenire, interveni, interventus - to come between; to interrupt] 

parvenu - a person who has recently attained wealth or power beyond his/her merits; an upstart: Ostentation and boorishness often characterize the parvenu. Also: parvenudom, parvenuism. 

supervene - to come or happen as something additional, extraneous, or unexpected: It may start as a few missed assignments and several low quiz grades; then, if even a relatively minor illness supervenes, the result may be an unacceptably low grade in the course. Also: supervenience, supervenient (supervening), supervention. [supervenio, supervenire, superveni, superventus - to come upon; to come in addition] 

venture - 1) to dare or presume to come, go, or do something; 2) to expose to danger; 3) to express at the risk of criticism or objection: All he could do at that point was venture a guess, because the crucial data had not yet arrived. Also: venturer, venturesome, venturesomeness, venturous, venturousness. 

venter, ventris, m. - belly; stomach

ventral - 1) abdominal; 2) situated on the abdominal side of the body: The dorsal fin of most fish is more conspicuous than the ventral fin. Also: venter (abdomen). [ventriculus, ventriculi, m. - belly]

ver, veris, n. - spring

vernal - 1) of or pertaining to spring, spring-like: Because of abundant rainfall in May and early June, our trees and shrubs preserved their vernal appearance until mid-July. 2) appearing in the spring; 3) youthful. Also: vernalize, vernalization. [vernus, verna, vernum - spring-like, of spring; verno, vernare - to flourish, grow green]

vernalize - to cause to bloom early: Commercial nurseries vernalize flowers to increase productivity and profit. Also: vernal (of or pertaining to; spring-like), vernalization, vernation (arrangement or formation of leaves in a bud). [verno, vernare - to grow young, feel new life; to flourish; vernus, verna, vernum - of spring; spring-like]

verbum, verbi n. - word

verbal - of, in, or by means of words: Children who enjoy pictures more than verbal images prefer comic books to novels. Also: verbality, verbalism (verbal expression; choice of words; too much attention to words instead of meaning), verbalist (one who uses words well; one who pays too much attention to words), verbalistic. 

verbalize - to use words to express meaning: How well do you know something if you can't verbalize it? Also: verbalizer, verbalization. 

verbatim - word for word: The autistic youngster was able to repeat verbatim entire paragraphs that he had heard for the first time. 

verbiage - an excess of words, wordiness: Having read his class's first essays of the year, the teacher wrote the same message to each student: get rid of the verbiage. 

verbose - using too many words: The verbose speaker put everyone to sleep. Also: verboseness, verbosity (the state or quality of being verbose). [verbosus, verbosa, verbosum - wordy] 

vereor, vereri, veritus - to have respect for; to fear

revere - to regard with love and respect; to venerate: Mohammed Ali is revered by many for his post-boxing humanitarian efforts, while others, remembering the Casius Clay of his younger days, condemn him as a draft dodger. Also: reverable, reverer, reverence, reverencer, reverend, reverendship, reverent, reverentness, reverential (reverent), reverentiality, reverentialness.

vergo, vergere, versi - to turn; to bend

converge - to come together in a point: I-75 extends from northern Michigan at the Canadian border to Fort Lauderdale in southern Florida, while I-71 connects Cleveland, Ohio, with Louisville, Kentucky. These two highways converge in Cincinnati, then run together for about 15 miles before diverging south of Cincinnati. Also: convergence, convergent. 

divergent - moving or extending in different directions from a common point: Inseparable friends as children, they followed divergent paths after middle school, he going to a public, she to a parochial school. Also: diverge (to move or extend in different directions from a common point), divergence, divergency (divergence). 

verto, vertere, verti, versus - to turn

adversary - 1) enemy; 2) opponent: Complacency helps the adversary--in business, in war, and in sports. Also: adversarial, adversariness. [adversarius, adversaria, adversarium - turned against; turned towards] 

adverse - 1) harmful; unfavorable; opposing: Adverse winds made it necessary for us to change our course. 2) unfriendly; hostile. Also: adverseness, adversity (state of misfortune), adversative (conjunction expressing antithesis, such as "but" and "yet"). [adverto, advertere, adverti, adversus - to turn towards; adversus, adversa, adversum - hostile, opposed to] 

averse - opposed (to): "I'm not averse to homework," said one student, "if we can get it all done in class." Also: averseness. [averto, avertere, averti, aversus - to turn away] 

avert - 1) to turn aside: Some residents stared, others averted their eyes as the nude man walked between the rows of houses and boarded a bus. 2) to prevent. Also: aversion (strong dislike, opposition), aversive (showing aversion), aversiveness. [averto, cf. averse] 

controvert - to dispute, debate: Evolution controverts the beliefs of Christian fundamentalists, who hold that everything in the Bible is literally true. Also: controversial, controversialism, controversialist (one who is skilled in or participates in controversy), controversiality, controversy, controverter, controvertist (controversialist), controvertible. [versus, versus, m. - a turning; versus (adv.) - towards, facing; vertex, verticis, m. - whirlwind; summit; vertigo, vertiginis, f. - a whirling; dizziness]

divert - to turn aside; deflect: They hoped to divert the flow of the river away from the already severely eroded shore. Also: diversion, diversional (diverting), diversionary (tending to divert), diversionism (an engaging in diversionary activity), diversionist (one who engages in diversionary activity), diverter, divertible, divertive (diverting; anything that diverts the attention). [diverto, divertere, diverti, diversus - to turn aside] 

extrovert - someone who is primarily concerned with things outside himself or herself: If you genuinely enjoy large gatherings at which one is expected to mingle with and talk to as many people as possible, you're an extrovert. Also: extroversion, extroversive, extroverted, extrovertive. [extra - adv., on the outside; prep. w/ acc., outside of]

inadvertent - 1) unintentional; caused by oversight: An inadvertent remark has strained many a relationship. 2) inattentive; negligent. Also: advert (to turn the attention to; to attend to), advertence (attentiveness), advertency, advertent (attentive), inadvertence, inadvertency. [adverto, cf. adverse] 

incontrovertible - unable to be disputed; unquestionable: Incontrovertible evidence made this an open-and-shut case. Also: incontrovertibility, incontrovertibleness, controvert (argue against or about), controverter, controvertible, controvertist. [controversus, controversa, controversum - debatable, questionable] 

introvert - someone who is primarily concerned with his or her own thoughts and feelings: Extroverts like parties; introverts don't.] Also: introversion, introversive, introverted, introvertive. [intro - adv., within]

inverse - 1) turned upside down; 2) opposite in direction, tendency, or effect: In the case of high school students who work during the school year, one expects to find an inverse relationship between hours worked and grades earned; that is, as the hours go up, the grades go down. Also: inversion, inversive (of or pertaining to inversion), invert, invertible, invertibility. [inverto, invertere, inverti, inversus - turn over; transpose; inversio, inversionis, f. - inversion; irony] 

revert - to go back; to return (to a former practice, opinion, etc.): The ex-con reverted to a life of crime when he lost his job. Also: reversion, reversional, reversionary, reversionism, reversionist (one who advocates returning to the conditions of an earlier time), revertant (pertaining to a gene that has underrgone back mutation), revertible, revertibility, revertive. [reverto, revertere, reverti, reversus - to turn back, return] 

subvert - to overthrow; ruin; undermine: Socrates was accused of subverting the morals of the youth of Athens by questioning the existence of the gods. Also: subversion (a subverting or being subverted), subversive (tending or seeking to subvert), subversivism, subversiveness, subverter, subvertible. [subverto, subvertere, subverti, subversus - to overturn] 

transverse - (adj.) lying across; crossing from side to side: The proposed convention center consists of two parallel exhibition halls and a transverse section of shops and restaurants. (n.) a transverse part. Also: transversal (a straight line that intersects two or more lines). [tra(ns)versus, tra(ns)versa, tra(ns)versum - lying across; transverse] 

traverse - (v.) 1) to pass or move across or through: Traversing Harvard Yard for the first time, she felt a mixture of pride and anxiety. 2) to lie or extend across; 3) to oppose; to go counter to; (n.) something that traverses. Also: traversable, traversal (a traversing or being traversed), traverser. [tra(ns)versus, cf. transverse] 

versification - 1) the making of verses; 2) the form or style of poetry; 3) an expression of something in verse: His best ballads are versifications of ancient Greek and Roman myths. Also: versifier (a poet; someone who writes mediocre verse). [versificatio, versificationis, f. - making of verse; versifico, versificare, versificavi, versificatus - to write verse] 

vertigo - a feeling that the person, or that surrounding objects, are spinning or tilting, accompanied by a sensation that one is losing equilibrium or consciousness: Patients often complain of vertigo; in some cases, internists cannot determine the cause. Also: vertiginous (spinning, whirling; dizzy), vertiginousness. {vertigo, vertiginis, f. - a turning around, whirling; dizziness]

verus, vera, verum - true

aver - to declare to be true; affirm: Coleridge’s Ancient Mariner says: "For all averred, I had killed the bird / That made the breeze to blow." [ad (prep. w/ acc.) - to; toward] 

veracity - 1) truthfulness: Honest people are understandably distraught when their veracity is called into question. 2) truth; accuracy. Also: veracious (truthful; true; accurate), veraciousness. [verax, veracis - truthful] 

verify - confirm; prove to be true: No witnesses could be found to verify that the defendant had been at the scene of the crime. Also: verifiable, verifiability, verification, verificative, verificatory, verifier. 

veritable - true; real; actual: "You are a veritable saint," said the old woman upon receiving a large basket of food from her longtime neighbor. Also: veritableness, verity (truthfulness; a fact). 

vesper, vesperis, m. - evening

vespers - church service held in the early evening: Every evening at five, the monastery bells summon the monks to vespers. Also: vespertine (occurring in the evening; of or pertaining to the evening).

vestis, vestis, f. - clothing

divest - to strip (someone of something); to take away a right or rank: The Pope divested the recalcitrant archbishop of rank and privileges and remanded him to his monastery. Also: divestiture, divestment. [vestio, vestire, vestivi, vestitus - clothe, dress] 

vested - 1) clothed; 2) held permanently; established, fixed; 3) involving one's personal interest: Noting that her vested interests could make her vulnerable to a charge of partiality, she excused herself from the committee. Also: vest (to give power, authority, or property to someone; to put someone in possession of rights, authority, or functions; to clothe). [vestio, cf. divest] 

investiture - formal bestowal of power, authority, office, etc., often with the appropriate trappings: Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor during the latter part of the 11th Century, refused to abide by Pope Gregory VII's proscription of lay investiture, whereby bishops were chosen by laymen; thus the Pope excommunicated him. Also: vestment (a garment worn by clergymen). [vestimentum, vestimenti, n. - garment; vestio, cf. divest; vestitus, vestitus, m. - clothing, clothes] 

travesty - 1. literary or artistic burlesque of a serious work or subject; 2. a treatment or likeness that makes a serious thing seem ridiculous: The dunking of suspected witches to determine guilt or innocence (if she floated she was guilty, if she drowned she was innocent) was a disgraceful travesty. [trans (prep. w/ acc.) - across; vestio, cf. divest] 

vetus, veteris - old, aged, ancient

inveterate - 1) confirmed in a habit or practice: She came to realize that her co-worker was an inveterate liar with a bad memory; she often forgot the lies she had told the week before. 2) long and firmly established. Also: inveteracy, inveterateness. [veteranus, veterana, veteranum - old, veteran; veterator, veteratoris, m. - one who has grown old in doing something; veteratorius, veteratoria, veteratorium - sly, cunning, crafty; veternosus, veternosa, veternosum - lethargic, drowsy; veternus, veterni, m. - lethargy, drowsiness; vetulus, vetula, vetulum - old, elderly; poor little old; vetustas, vetustatis, f. - age, old age; vetustus, vetusta, vetustum - old, aged, ancient]

vexo, vexare, vexavi, vexatus - to shake; trouble, disturb, harass

vex - 1) to disturb, annoy; 2) to distress, trouble, torment: One piece of the puzzle of longevity is not allowing oneself to be vexed by life’s vicissitudes. Also: vexation, vexatious (annoying), vexatiousness, vexedness, vexer. [vexatio, vexationis, f. - a harassing; vexator, vexatoris, m. - one who harasses]

vexatious - annoying: While the husband earned most of their money, the wife undertook the more vexatious tasks of ironing, paying bills, and keeping the catalogue file up to date. Also: vex (annoy), vexation, vexatiousness, vexedness, vexer. [vexatio, vexationis, f. - a shaking; troubling; vexator, vexatoris, m. - one who harasses, troubles, or disturbs]

via, viae, f. - road, way

deviate - to turn aside (from); diverge; digress: Unwilling to deviate even slightly from their chosen itinerary, the couple passed up scores of places that they heard about along the way. Also: deviable, deviability, deviant (deviating), deviation, deviative, deviator, deviatory. 

devious - twisting; straying from right (ethical) ways, not straightforward: Machiavelli advised his prince to use effectual means, however devious, to achieve his goals. Also: deviousness. [devius, devia, devium - out of the way] 

obviate - to make unnecessary: By means of judicious review throughout the semester, a good student obviates cramming and enhances retention. Also: obviable, obviation, obviator. [obvio, obviare, obviavi, obviatus - to act contrary to; obvius, obvia, obvium - in the way] 

via - by way of: We drove from Louisville to Chicago via St. Louis. 

viaduct - long bridge consisting of a series of masonry spans, to carry a road or a railroad over a valley or chasm: Except for a decaying viaduct, nothing in the vast, desolate area hinted that humans had once resided there. [duco, ducere, duxi, ductus - to lead] 

via media - middle way (between two extremes): Greek philosophers sang the praises of the via media, which they considered the safest and wisest course through the world. [medius, media, medium - in the middle of] 

viator - a traveler: There are still areas of the world--rural China, for example--where viators are few, where many, if not most, people spend their entire lives within a few miles of the place of their birth. [viator, viatoris, m. - traveler]

---, vicis, f. - change, alternation

vicissitudes - unpredictable changes that keep happening in life; the ups and downs of fortune: Major-league baseball players try to remain even-tempered amid the vicissitudes of a 162-game season. Also: vicissitudinary, vicissitudinous. [vicissim - in turn; vicissitudo, vicissitudinis, f. - change, alternation, vicissitude]

vicus, vici, m. - a district of town; a village; an estate

vicinage - vicinity; neighborhood: Fifty years ago, vicinage played an important part in everyone’s social life, as it still does today in predominantly black neighborhoods. Also: vicinal, vicinity. [viculus, viculi, m. - a small village; hamlet]

vicinal - 1) of or pertaining to a neighborhood: The front porch and the corner grocery store were important components of vicinal interconnectedness in the first half of the twentieth century. 2) neighboring. Also: vicinage, vicinity.

video, videre, vidi, visus - to see

invidious - giving offense because unjust or unfair; unjustly discriminating: "I asked for well-researched, well-argued comparisons," said the teacher, "not invidious impressions." Also: invidiousness. [invideo, invidere, invidi, invisus - to look askance at; to be prejudiced against; invidiosus, invidiosa, invidiosum - arousing envy; envious; hateful] 

visage - face: A wide-eyed, credulous visage invited con artists to ply their trade with her. 

visionary - 1) a person who sees visions: A large crowd had gathered along the path to see the visionaries, perhaps even to touch them, as they made their way to the grotto. 2) a person who has impractical ideas. Also: visionariness. [visio, visionis, f. - view; appearance] 

vista - a view through a narrow passage or opening: An occasional vista presented itself through a break in the trees and afforded the traveler a view of the valley below and of the hills beyond. 

vigilo, vigilare, vigilavi, vigilatus - to be awake, watch

vigilant - watchful, alert: When terrorism threatens, citizens are asked to be particularly vigilant. Also: vigil (wakefulness or watchfulnes at night), vigilance, vigilante (one who takes the law into his own hands), vigilantness. [vigil, vigilis - awake, watchful; vigilantia, vigilantiae, f. - watchfulness; vigilax, vigilacis - watchful; vigilia, vigiliae, f. - wakefulness, watching]

vilis, vile - cheap, of little value

revile - to attack with abusive language; to abuse verbally: Man debases himself by reviling others. Be constructive. Also: revilement, reviler.

vilify - to defame, slander, speak evil of: If we vilify others, we bring dishonor to ourselves. Also: vile (repulsively bad, highly offensive, disgusting; poor; of little value), vileness, vilification, vilifier. [vilitas, vilitatis, f. - cheapness] 

vilipend - to regard or treat as having little value; vilify: Stand on your own merits; don’t vilipend your competitors. Also: vilification, vilifier, vilify, vilipender. [vilitas, vilitatis, f. - cheapness; worthlessness]

vinco, vincere, vici, victus - to conquer, defeat

evict - to remove a tenant from leased property: The landlord said he would have the tenants evicted if they did not pay their bill within a week. Also: evictee (one who has been evicted), eviction (an evicting or a being evicted), evictor. [evinco, evincere, evici, evictus - to overcome; to prevail over; to prove] 

evince - to show that one has a certain quality or feeling: The new employee evinced a belligerent attitude and a predilection for gossip. Also: evincible (demonstrable), evincive. [evinco, cf. evict] 

invincible - unable to be conquered or overcome: If all athletic teams were invincible, every game, match, and meet would end in a tie. Also: invincibility, invincibleness, vincible (able to be defeated), vincibility, vincibleness. [vincibilis, vincibile - easily gained] 

vinculum, vinculi, n. - chain; bond

vinculum - a bond signifying union or unity: A year after his death she removed her wedding band, which for her had been a vinculum; while she wore it, she could not be unfaithful to her husband. [vincio, vincire, vinxi, vinctus - bind]

vindico, vindicare, vindicavi, vindicatus - to make a claim upon, lay claim to

vindicate - 1. to clear from suspicion: Many an innocent person has borne the onus of lifelong suspicion, for the “not guilty” verdict of a jury seldom vindicates a defendant in the eyes of everyone. 2. to uphold; 3. to justify. Also: vindicable, vindication, vindicative (tending to vindicate), vindicator, vindicatory (serving to vindicate), vindictive (inclined to revenge), vindictiveness. [vindicatio, vindicationis, f. - an avenging, defending; vindiciae, vindiciarum, f. - a legal claim] 

vindictive - inclined to revenge, vengeful; (of acts) showing a strong tendency toward revenge: Meanspirited, vindictive people ruin their own lives by holding on to their anger. Also: vindictiveness. 

vinum, vini, n. - wine

viniculture - the cultivation of grapes for wine production: Along parts of the Rhine and Moselle rivers as well as in an area traversed by the "Weinstraße," Germans rely heavily on viniculture for their economic well-being. Also: vinicultural, viniculturist, viniferous (producing wine), vinification (the process of makng wine), vinify (to make wine; to convert fruit into wine). [cultura, culturae, f. - tilling, cultivation; fero, ferre, tuli, latus - to bear; to bring forth; facio, facere, feci, factus - to do; to make] 

vinous - of, like, or having to do with wine: The judges noted in their written comments that the winning chili had a vinous taste that was quite pleasant. Also: vinosity (the condition of being vinous). [vinosus, vinosa, vinosum - full of wine] 

vintage - (n.) 1) a year's crop of grapes: Since grapes grow better in some years than in others, it makes sense to consider vintage when selecting a good wine. 2) the modal of a particular year or period; 3) time of gathering grapes; (adj.) outstanding; choice. [vindemia, vindemiae, f. - grape gathering] 

vintner - a person who makes and/or sells wine: German vintners will sometimes take visitors to see the huge barrels of wine in their wine cellars. 

vir, viri, m. - man; husband

virile - manly: In this feminist era, virile qualities are not as clearly defined as they once were; for example, are patience and gentleness, once considered feminine virtues, manly? Also: virility (manliness). [virilis, virile - of or like a man, manly; virilitas, virilitatis, f. - manhood; manliness] 

virilism - the development of secondary male sex characteristics (e.g., heavy facial hair, large Adam's apple) in a woman: Anna asked her doctor if massive doses of estrogen would rid her of the embarrassing symptoms of virilism. [virilis, cf. virile] 

viridis, viride - (all shades of) green

verdancy - greenness: In The Grapes of Wrath, the Joad family, from the dustbowl of Oklahoma, are amazed at the verdancy of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Also: verdant (green).

virid - green, verdant: Because they impede the movement of rain clouds, mountain ranges are often virid on one side and arid on the other. Also: viridescent (greenish), viridescence, viridity (greenness; youth). [viridans, viridantis - green; viridarium, viridari, n. - pleasure garden; viriditas, viriditatis, f. - greenness]

virtus, virtutis, f. - manliness, bravery, courage

virtuoso - a person highly skilled in one of the fine arts, especially music: The gala event featured solo performances by eight of the world's greatest virtuosos. Also: virtuose (characterized by virtuosity), virtuosity (the skill of a virtuoso). 

virus, viri, n. - poison, venom

virulent - very poisonous: Radical orthodoxy peremptorily denounces dissenters as purveyors of virulent ideas. Also: virulence, virulency. 

vis, vim (acc.), pl. vires, virium, f. - strength, power

vim - force; energy: I'll take vim, vigor, and vitality over listlessness, lassitude, and lethargy any day.

viscera, viscerum, n. pl. - the internal organs

visceral - 1) pertaining to or resembling the organs in the abdominal cavity; 2) instinctive, emotional: For some people, religion is visceral to the point of being anti-intellectual; if reason contradicts their religion, reason must be wrong. Also: viscera (organs of the abdominal cavity).

vita, vitae, f. - life

revitalize - restore vitality or vigor after a decline: The students' improved scores revitalized not only the principal but most of the teachers as well. Also: revitalization. [vitalis, vitale - of life; life-sustaining; vital] 

vital - 1) of or concerned with life; 2) essential to life: The bullet went completely through his body without striking a vital organ. 3) indispensable. Also: vitalization, vitalize (make vital), vitalness. [vitalis, cf. revitalize] 

vitality - 1) power to live or go on living: One seems to find as much vitality among the poor as among the wealthy. 2) energy. [vitalis, cf. revitalize] 

vito, vitare, vitavi, vitatus - to shun, avoid

inevitable - unavoidable: Unless the chain of violence is broken, biological, chemical, and nuclear disasters seem inevitable. Also: inevitability, inevitableness. [evitabilis, evitabile - avoidable; evito, evitare, evitavi, evitatus - to shun, avoid; inevitabilis, inevitabile - unavoidable; vitatio, vitationis, f. - avoidance, shunning]

vitreus, vitrea, vitreum - made of glass; like glass, transparent; splendid

vitriolic - 1) of or resembling a metallic sulfate characterized by a glassy appearance; 2) bitterly critical; scathing; very caustic: The candidates’ vitriolic criticism of each other convinced many voters that neither candidate deserved to be elected. Also: vitriol (a metallic sulfate characterized by a glassy appearance; severe criticism), vitriolization, vitriolize.

vituperatio, vituperationis, f. - blame, censure

vituperation - strong verbal abuse; bitter denunciation: Constructive criticism is more effective than vituperation, unless your intention is to alienate. Also: vituperate (to abuse verbally), vituperative. [vituperabilis, vituperabile - blamable; vituperator, vituperatoris, m. - a censuser, blamer; vitupero, vituperare, vituperavi - to blame, find fault, censure] 

vivo, vivere, vixi, victus - be alive, live

conviviality - 1) eating, drinking and good company; 2) a fondness for eating, drinking, and good company: If you were asked to enumerate the qualities of the good life, would you include conviviality? Also: convive (an eating or drinking companion), convivial, convivialist (a convivial person). [convivium, convivi, n. - feast] 

victuals - (n.) food supply: The hikers took great care in selecting victuals for their weeklong trek through a wilderness area of the Rockies. (v.) to supply with food. Also: victualage (food, provisions), victualer, victualless. [victus, victus, m. - sustenance, nourishment; way of life; vivax, vivacis - long-lived; vividus, vivida, vividum - full of life]

vivacity - liveliness; being full of life: Many country-music fans admire the vivacity of Dolly Parton. Also: vivacious, vivaciousness (vivacity). [vivacitas, vivacitatis, f. - tenacious hold on life; vivax, vivacis - holding onto life tenaciously; lively] 

vivify - 1) to give life to, to animate; 2) to make more colorful or striking; to enliven: In south Germany and Austria, many people vivify the exterior walls of their houses with window boxes full of bright flowers. Also: vivification, vivifier. 

vivus, viva, vivum - living, alive

vivarium - a place where animals and plants are kept alive under conditions simulating their natural environment: Many contemporary zoos attempt to provide vivariums for the animal residents. [vivarium, vivari, n. - an enclosure where living animals are kept; vivax, vivacis - long-lived; vividus, vivida, vividum - full of life; vivo, vivere, vixi, victus - be alive, live]

voco, vocare, vocavi, vocatus - to call

advocate - (v.) to recommend publicly: Does the right of free speech extend to those who advocate unlawful violence? (n.) 1) a person who writes or speaks in support of something; 2) a person who pleads the cause of another; lawyer. Also: advocacy (speaking or writing in favor; the act of advocating), advocative, advocator, advocatory (pertaining to an advocate). [advoco, advocare, advocavi, advocatus - to call (to one’s assistance); advocatio, advocationis, f. - providing legal assistance] 

convoke - to call together for a meeting: The President convoked a special joint meeting of Congress. Also: convocation (act of convoking; a group, often ecclesiastical or academic, that has been convoked), convocational, convoker. [convoco, convocare, convocavi, convocatus - to call together, assemble; convocatio, convocationis, f. - a calling together] 

evocative - tending to draw forth, bring out, or call up: The evocative statement elicited the desired emotional response. Also: evocable, evocate (to evoke), evocation, evocativeness, evocator, evocatory, evoke (to draw forth, bring out, call up), evoker. [evoco, evocare, evocavi, evocatus - to call forth, summon]

evoke - to call forth, draw forth, elicit: His arrogant question evoked an angry response. Also: evocable, evocater (one who calls up spirits), evocation (an evoking), evocative (tending to evoke), evocativeness, evoker. [evoco, evocare, evocavi, evocatus - to call out, call forth; evocator, evocatoris, m. - one who calls to arms] 

invoke - 1) to call on (usually a spiritual being) for help, blessing, support: On the evening before the impossible final, she invoked the assistance of God and all his saints, and went to bed. 2) to ask solemnly, implore. Also: invocable, invocation (formal prayer at the beginning of an important function), invocative, invocator (one who invokes), invocatory, invoker. [invoco, invocare, invocavi, invocatus - to call upon (for help); invocatio, invocationis, f. - a calling upon] 

irrevocable - unable to be repealed, rescinded, or canceled: It would seem that the laws of nature are irrevocable, which does us little good if we can't agree on what is or isn't a natural law. Also: irrevocability, irrevocableness. [revocabilis, revocabile - able to be called back or canceled] 

provoke - to excite to some action or feeling, often anger: Her evasive answer provoked an angry skepticism. Also: provocation (act of provoking), provocative (provoking; stimulating; irritating). [provoco, provocare, provocavi, provocatus - to rouse; to challenge; provocatio, provocationis, f. - challenge] 

revoke - to repeal, rescind, cancel (a law): The City Council today revoked the housing amendment that it passed just two months ago. Also: revocable, revocability, revocableness, revocation, revocatory, revoker. [revoco, revocare, revocavi, revocatus - to call back, recall; revocabilis, cf. irrevocable; revocatio, revocationis, f. - calling back] 

vocalize - to express with the voice: Children usually manage to vocalize their feelings in one way or another. Also: vocalization, vocalizer. [vocalis, vocale - vocal] 

vocation - 1) career toward which one believes oneself to be called; 2) any occupation: Charles considers his mundane job a vocation to be taken seriously. Also: avocation (something one does in addition to a regular job, usually for pleasure; hobby), vocational. [vocatio, vocationis, f. - summons; invitation] 

volo, velle, volui - to want, wish

volition - 1) the act of willing: Having violated the conditions of his parole, he drove to the police department of his own volition, prepared to accept the consequences of his actions. 2) a deliberate choice; 3) will power. Also: volitional, volitionary, volitive.

volo, volare, volavi, volaturus - to fly

volatile - 1) vaporizing quickly; 2) likely to change quickly and unpredictably: Naval forces in the Mediterranean were being kept on 24-hour alert because of the volatile situation there. Also: volatility, volatileness. [volatilis, volatile - having wings, flying] 

volant - 1) flying; 2) capable of flight: Not all birds are volant. 

volubilis, volubile - turning, spinning; (of speech) rapid

voluble - 1. talkative: When asked why he talked so much, John replied, “Voluble people have valuable things to say.” 2. characterized by words that flow smoothly and rapidly. Also: volubility, volubleness. [volubilitas, volubilitatis, f. - a revolving motion; (of speech) rapidity; (of fortune) mutability] 

voluptas, voluptatis, f. - enjoyment, pleasure, delight

voluptuary - (n.) one whose life is devoted to luxurious living and sensual pleasure: Despite their name, the ancient Epicureans were not voluptuaries, for they sought peace of mind and moderate pleasure. (adj.) of or pertaining to the pursuit of luxury and sensual pleasure. Also: voluptuous, voluptuousness. [volup - delightfully, agreeably; voluptabilis, voluptabile - giving pleasure; voluptarius, voluptaria, voluptarium - of or pertaining to pleasure; pleasurable; voluptuosus, voluptuosa, voluptuosum - delightful, full of pleasure]

vox, vocis, f. - voice

univocal - having only one meaning; unambiguous: When he heard that Ohio does not recognize the word "or" for automobile registrations because of its ambiguity, he laughed and insisted that "or" is univocal; but he was wrong. [unus, una, unum - one] 

vociferous - loud, noisy (because of shouting or loud talking): A vociferous entreaty is seldom effective; I recommend the soft-spoken approach. Also: vociferance (a vociferating), vociferant (vociferating), vociferate (to shout), vociferator, vociferation (the act of vociferating), vociferousness (the quality or state of being vociferous). [vociferor, vociferari, vociferatus sum - to cry out, shout, scream; vociferatio, vociferationis, f. - shouting, screaming] 

vulgus, vulgi, n. - the people, public; a crowd, mass

vulgate - any commonly accepted text; 2) common speech, the vernacular: The old mortician passed easily form the king’s English to the vulgate as he moved among the mass of mourners from every stratum of society. Also: vulgar, vulgarian, vulgarism (vulgar behavior; a vulgar expression), vulgarity, vulgarize (to lower, make vulgar), vulgarization, vulgarizer, vulgarness. [vulgaris, vulgare - usual, ordinary; vulgo, vulgare, vulgavi, vulgatus - to make public, make general]

vulnus, vulneris, n. - wound

vulnerable - 1) able to be wounded or hurt; 2) open to attack: Our coaches think that the Tigers have an excellent pass defense but are vulnerable to a well-constructed running attack. Also: vulnerability, vulnerableness, invulnerability, invulnerable, invulnerableness. [vulnero, vulnerare, vulneravi, vulneratus - to wound] 

vulnerary - used for healing wounds: Physicians in our country hope to learn more about vulnerary plants from so-called primitive tribes. 


vulpes, vulpis, f. - fox

vulpine - With vulpine craftiness the King and the Duke ingratiated themselves with the townspeople, all the while intending to abscond with as much of Peter Wilks’ money as they could carry. 1) of or pertaining to foxes; 2) foxy, foxlike, cunning.

Moutoux, Latin Derivatives 

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