Latin Derivatives
- R -

radix, radicis, f. - root

deracinate - uproot, eradicate: Violent ideologues have been known to cite passages from religious texts, such as the Bible or the Koran, in support of their murderous attempts to deracinate opposing ideologies. Also: deracination.

ramus, rami, m. - branch

ramification - 1) a spreading out into branches; 2) offshoot, outgrowth; consequence: No one fully understands the American stock market, much less its international ramifications. Also: ramiform (branchlike), ramify (to spread out into branches). [ramosus, ramosa, ramosum - full of branches; branching]

rapio, rapere, rapui, raptus - to seize, snatch; to carry off

enrapture - to fill with great pleasure; to delight intensely: To fall in love is to be enraptured by the beauty and personality of another. Also: rapture (the sense of being carried away with delight; ecstatic joy), raptureless, rapturous, rapturousness. 

rapacious - 1) given to plundering; seizing by violence: When the police withdrew, gangs of rapacious youths roamed the streets, looting stores, setting fires, and terrorizing law-abiding citizens. 2) extremely greedy; 3) subsisting by preying on other animals; predatory. Also: rapaciousness, rapacity (extreme greed). [rapax, rapacis - seizing, greedy; rapacitas, rapacitatis, f. - greediness] 

rapine - the act of forcibly taking the property of others and carrying it off: The Thirty Years War inflicted murder, destruction of property, rape, and rapine on the towns and villages of Germany. [rapina, rapinae, f. - plundering] 

rapture - intense delight, ecstatic joy: Hardly a joyful person in everyday life, she had nevertheless been able to experience rapture through literature, cinema, and theater. Also: enrapture (to fill with rapture), raptureless, rapturous, rapturousness. [rapina, rapinae, f. - plundering; raptim - violently; rapto, raptare, raptavi, raptatus - to seize and carry off; raptor, raptoris, m. - plunderer; raptus, raptus, m. - a carrying off, plundering]

surreptitious - done secretly and stealthily, clandestine: The purpose of espionage is the surreptitious obtainment of secret information. Also: surreptitiousness. [surrepticius, surrepticia, surrepticium - stolen; secret] 

ratio, rationis, f. - account, reason

ratiocination - 1) reasoning: Debating involves more than ratiocination; the successful debater must know the facts, have a command of rhetoric, and exhibit poise. 2) conclusion based on reason. Also: ratiocinate (to reason), ratiocinative, ratiocinator. [ratiocinatio, ratiocinationis, f. - reasoning; ratiocinor, ratiocinari, ratiocinatus sum - to calculate; to reason; to conclude] 

rational - 1) able to reason: He struggled to keep emotion in check and to remain rational. 2) involving the use of reason; 3) reasonable. Also: irrational, (ir)rationalism, (ir)rationalist, rationalistic, (ir)rationality. [rationalis, rationale - reasonable] 

rationale - the fundamental reason(s) for doing or not doing something: Some people try to resolve conflicting rationales within themselves; others just accept them; still others never see them. 

rationalize - 1) to make rational; 2) to explain rationally; 3) to find explanations or excuses for one's actions without an awareness that they are false: Reason is a two-edged sword: it can be used to discover truth or to rationalize. Also: rationalization, rationalizer. 

raucus, rauca, raucum - hoarse

raucous - 1. harsh-sounding, strident: Many older people find much of todayís popular music raucous; they prefer the mellow sounds of the forties and fifties. 2. rowdy. Also: raucousness, raucity. 

rebello, rebellare, rebellavi, rebellatus - to revolt, rebel

revel - to take great pleasure (in): To revel in the misfortunes of others is to wallow in mire. Also: reveler, revelment, revelry (boisterous merrymaking). [rebellatio, rebellationis, f. - a revolt, rebellion; rebellio, rebellionis, f. - a revolt, rebellion; rebellis, rebelle - rebellious; rebellium, rebelli, n. - rebellion]

recenseo, recensere, recensui, recensus - to review

recension - a revision of a literary text based on critical examination of the text and of the sources used: In the case of ancient texts, it seems unlikely that a particular recension (an attempt by one or several scholars to provide the earliest text for which sufficient evidence can be adduced) will please everyone. Also: recensionist. [censeo, censere, censui, census - to estimate; assess; value; recensio, recensionis, f. - a reviewing; recensus, recensus, m. - a review]

recognosco, recognoscere, recognovi, recognitus - to recognize; to review

recognizance - 1) a bond requiring a person to do a particular act: The actress accused of shoplifting was released on her own recognizance. 2) money that must be paid if the act is not performed. [recognitio, recognitionis, f. - investigation, review]

rectus, recta, rectum - straight, upright; correct, proper

rectify - to make or set right; to correct: We all make mistakes; the trick is to acknowledge our mistakes and rectify them. Also: rectifiable, rectification, rectificative (rectifying), rectifier. [rectum, recti, n. - good, virtue; rego, regere, rexi, rectus - to guide, rule; keep straight, conduct] 

redoleo, redolere, redolui - to emit a scent, smell of

redolent - 1. fragrant, having a pleasing odor; 2. smelling strongly: The Swiss mountainside, redolent of freshly mown hay, looked down upon the village below, where a red train had just pulled into the station. Also: redolence, redolency (redolence). [oleo, olere, olui - to emit a smell; olidus, olida, olidum - stinking] 

refuto, refutare, refutavi, refutatus - to drive back, repel

refute - 1. to prove (an opinion, charge, claim, or argument) to be false: The intellectual successors of Copernicus and Galileo refuted the ancient notion, which was adamantly defended by the Church, that the earth stands motionless at the center of the universe. 2. to prove (someone) to be wrong. Also: refutable, refutability, refutal (refutation), refutation, refutative (serving to refute), refutatory (refutative), refuter. [refutatio, refutationis, f. - refutation] 

regnum, regni, n. - royal power; kingdom, rule

interregnum - the period of time between the end of one ruler's reign and the beginning of the reign of his/her successor: During the interregnum an unsuccessful attempt was made to establish a democracy. [interregnum, interregni, n. - period between two reigns] 

regnal - of or pertaining to a reign or to a reigning sovereignty: The regnal years of Caesar Augustus stretched from 27 b.c.e. to 14 c.e. [regno, regnare, regnavi, regnatus - rule, reign, have royal power]

regnant - (*adj. follows noun) 1) reigning, ruling: The queen regnant of England is Elizabeth II. 2) exercising authority or influence; 3) prevalent.

rego, regere, rexi, rectus - guide, rule

rectitude - upright character or conduct; honesty: The retiree was praised for her hard work and rectitude. Also: rectitudinous. 

regent - 1) a person who rules a kingdom during the absence, minority, or incapacity of the king or queen: In 1542, upon the accession to the throne of the infant queen Mary, the Earl of Arran was appointed regent. 2) a member of the governing board of certain universities. Also: regency (the office or time of rule of a regent; a group of regents; country ruled by a regent). 

regimen - a set of rules or habits of diet, exercise, or lifestyle for the sake of good health: Having adopted an exercise regimen of swimming, distance running, and weight training, she was in the best shape of her life. [regimen, regiminis, n. - guidance, direction] 

relego, relegare, relegavi, relegatus - to send away; to exile

relegate - 1. to send away, usually to an inferior position: As new purchases caused her bookshelves to overflow, she relegated boxfuls of less read books to the attic. 2. to consign, hand over (a matter, a task). Also: relegable, relegation. [relegatio, relegationis, f. - a sending away, exile] 

reliquus, -a, -um - remaining, the rest of

relic - an object or custom remaining from the past: An afternoon of rummaging through grandma's attic turned up many relics from before the turn of the century. [reliquiae, reliquiarum, f. pl. - remains, relics] 

remaneo, remanere, remansi, remansurus - to remain

remnant - what is left over; remainder; (small) remaining part: Following her husband's death last year, she spent days in the attic, examining the letters, pictures, and other remnants of their life together. [maneo, manere, mansi, mansurus - to stay, remain]

reperio, reperire, repperi, repertus - to find, find out, discover

repertoire - 1) list of plays, songs, etc. that a company, an actor, a singer, etc. is prepared to perform A repertory company is a group of actors who have several plays in their repertoire and present them regularly or alternately. 2) all of the works or skills in a particular field. Also: repertory, repertorial. [repertor, repertoris, m. - discoverer, inventor]

repertory - 1) a theatrical company that performs several plays, operas, etc. regularly and in alternate sequence: Repertory theater is expensive and often requires subsidization. 2) a list of works that a musician, actor, or group is prepared to perform. Also: repertoire (repertory, 2), repertorial. [repertor, repertoris, m. - discoverer, inventor]

repleo, replere, replevi, repletus - to fill again, refill; to fill up

replete - filled; abundantly supplied: At last, her first book, replete with text, pictures, endnotes, and bibliography, was ready for the printer. Also: repleteness, repletion (fullness; condition of being abundantly supplied), repletive. 

reprehendo, reprehendere, reprehendi, reprehensus - to catch, hold back, restrain; to blame, censure

reprehensible - reproachable, blameworthy, deserving censure: Among scholars, the attempt to hide the truth is reprehensible; among dogmatists, itís a way of life. Also: reprehend (to rebuke), reprehendable, reprehender, reprehensibility, reprehensibleness, reprehension (censure), reprehensive. [reprehensio, reprehensionis, f. - blame, censure; reprehensor, reprehensoris, m. - a censurer] 

repudio, repudiare, repudiavi, repudiatus - to reject, scorn, disdain

repudiate - 1) to reject (with disapproval or denial): Sued for by a rival author for plagiarism, she not only repudiated the charges but countersued for defamation of character. 2) to refuse to pay; 3) to cast off, disown. Also: repudiation, repudiative, repudiator, repudiatory. [repudiatio, repudiationis, f. - rejection, refusal; repudium, repudi, n. - separation; divorce]

res, rei, f. - thing, affair, matter

realia - objects used as teaching tools: There is a competitive category for realia in the annual Foreign Language Festival. 

rebus - a puzzle that uses pictures and signs to suggest words and phrases (for example, the picture of a dog sitting on the letters i and t would suggest the phrase "doggone it"): Three students had a great time making rebuses as their realia entry for the festival. 

rescindo, rescindere, rescidi, rescissus - to cut off, cut down; to tear open; to repeal, annul

rescind - to revoke, repeal; to cancel; to invalidate: It was agreed that either party could rescind the contract within 48 hours after the signing. Also: rescindable, rescinder, rescindment, recissible (rescindable), recission (act of rescinding), recissory (serving to rescind).

respectus, respectus, m. - a looking back; a refuge; regard

respite - a delay or temporary cessation affording relief and rest: Medical residents must all too often work 24 hours or more without respite. [respicio, respicere, respexi, respectus - to look back; to reflect upon] 

reticeo, reticere, reticui - to be silent

reticent - disposed to be silent; reserved: Reticent in public, she talked our ears off at home. Also: reticence (the tendency to be silent). [reticentia, reticentiae, f. - silence] 

retineo, retinere, retinui, retentus - to hold (back), keep

retinue - a group of attendants surrounding a person of high rank or importance: What would the king be without his retinue? What indeed? [teneo, tenere, tenui, tentus - to hold]

retracto, retractare, retractavi, retractatus - to handle again; to consider again; to draw back

retract - 1. to draw back or in; 2. to withdraw, take back: As requested, he retracted his words, even though they had not been intended as an insult. Also: retractability, retractable, retractation (a retracting of a promise, statement, offer, etc.), retractile (capable of being drawn back or in), retractility, retractive (tending to retract, serving to retract), retractor. [retractatio, retractionis, f. - refusal; tracto, tractare, tractavi, tractatus - to drag, pull; to handle; tractatio, tractationis, f. - a handling] 

retro - backwards

retrospect - a looking back on, or contemplation of, things past: Retrospect makes quarterbacks of us all. Also: retrospection, retrospective, retrospectiveness. [specio, specere, spexi, spectus - to look at]

reveor, revereri, reveritus sum - to respect, be in awe of, fear

 irreverence - 1) lack of respect, disrespect; 2) an act of disrespect: It used to be considered an irreverence for a Christian woman to enter a church with uncovered head; indeed, 1 Corinthians 11 admonishes women to cover their head when they pray. Also: reverence (a feeling of or manifestation of respect), reverend (worthy of reverence), reverent (feeling or showing reverence), reverential (characterized by reverence), irreverent. [reverentia, reverentiae, f. - respect, regard]

rex, regis, m. - king

regal - royal; of or fit for a king: In full regal splendor, the new king made a mad dash for the bathroom. Also: regalia. [regalis, regale - of a king, regal] 

regalia - the emblems of royalty or of certain societies: With bare feet and without regalia, Emperor Henry IV stood for three days in the snow at Canossa before being allowed to kneel at the feet of Pope Gregory VII and apologize. Also: regal. [regalis, cf. regal] 

regicide - the killing of a king, especially of one's own country: Having obtained the crown by killing his brother, Claudius is himself the victim of regicide at the hands of the dying Hamlet. Also: regicidal. 

rideo, reidere, risi, risus - to laugh

deride - to make fun of, ridicule: Instead of cheering for their team, some people prefer to deride the opponent or the officials. Also: dirisible (worthy of ridicule), derision, derisive (ridiculing), derisiveness, derisory (derisive). [risus, risus, m. - laughter] 

risible - 1) capable of laughter: A visit to the primate section of a large zoo, or a reading of Carl Sagan's book Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors, ought to dispel the idea that "risible animal" is a description of man that adequately distinguishes him from other primates. 2) laughable. Also: risibility. [risus - cf. deride] 

roboro, roborare, roboravi, roboratus - to strengthen, make strong

corroborate - to confirm, support, make more certain: A prosecutor's job is made easier when condemnatory physical evidence from the scene of the crime corroborates the testimony of eye witnesses. Also: corroborant (something that corroborates, a strengthening or invigorating agent), corroboration, corroborative, corroborator, corroboratory. [corroboro, corroborare, corroboravi, corroboratus - to strengthen, invigorate, corroborate] 

rogo, rogare, rogavi, rogatus - to ask

abrogate - to abolish (a law, etc.); to do away with; to make null and void: Hoping to appease an irate populace, the aging dictator abrogated two of the most repressive regulations. Also: abrogable, abrogation, abrogative, abrogator. [abrogo, abrogare, abrogavi, abrogatus - to repeal; to remove; abrogatio, abrogationis, f. - repeal] 

arrogate - to claim for oneself or appropriate to oneself without justification: Our forefathers arrogated the right to conquer Indians and confine them to reservations. Also: arrogation, arrogance, arrogant (making claims of superiority; excessively proud), arrogator. [adrogo, adrogare, adrogavi, adrogatus - to associate with; to take to oneself; to grant; adrogans, adrogantis - assuming, haughty; adrogantia, adrogantiae, f. - assumption; haughtiness] 

interrogation - a thorough questioning: All military pilots had been trained to persevere under lengthy, repeated, and even abusive interrogation. Also: interrogable, interrogate, interrogational, interrogatory, interrogee (person being interrogated). [interrogatio, interrogationis, f. - interrogation; interrogo, interrogare, interrogavi, interrogatus - to question, interrogate] 

prerogative - an exclusive right or privilege, especially one attached to a particular rank or position: One of the prerogatives of the United States House of Representatives is to initiate tax bills. [praerogativus, praerogativa, praerogativum - voting first] 

surrogate -1) a deputy; substitute: The chairman was reluctant to deal with a surrogate on such an important matter. 2) a woman who, by means of artificial insemination, substitutes for a woman unable to become pregnant. [subrogo, subrogare, subrogavi, subrogatus - to put in anotherís place; to substitute] 


rostrum, rostri, n. - platform for speakers; beak, bill, snout; beaklike projection on a shipís prow

rostrum - 1) a platform for public speaking: Much has been proclaimed from the rostrum and denied in the cubicle. 2) beaklike projection on an ancient shipís prow; 3) speakersí platform in the Roman Forum adorned with the beaks of captured ships. Also: rostral (of or pertaining to a rostrum), rostrate (having a rostrum; having a beak or a beaklike part), rostrated (rostrate). [rostratus, rostrata, rostratum - having a beak]

rusticus, rustica, rusticum - rural, of the country

rustic - of, belonging to, suitable for, or living in the country; rural: The monetary value of the old house was small but the newlyweds loved its rustic charm. Also: rustical, rusticalness, rusticate (to stay in the country; to make rustic), rustication, rusticator, rusticity (state of being rustic), rusticness. [rus, ruris, n. - country, fields; rusticanus, rusticana, rusticanum - of or pertaining to the country; rusticatio, rusticationis, f. - a stay in the country; rusticitas, rusticitatis, f. - rudeness; rusticor, rusticari, rusticatus sum - to live or stay in the country]

Moutoux, Latin Derivatives 

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