Latin Derivatives
- P -

 

paene - almost

penultimate - next to the last; second last: All Latin words of two syllables are accented on the first syllable. Words of three or more syllables are accented on the penultimate syllable (called the penult) if that syllable is long; otherwise the accent is placed on the antepenult (third last syllable). Also: antepenultimate (third last). [ultimus, ultima, ultimum - farthest; last]

pallidus, pallida, pallidum - pale

pallid - pale, wan: The mysterious bird in Edgar Allan Poe’s poem “The Raven” sits upon “the pallid bust of Pallas.” Also: pallidness, pallor (paleness, wanness). [palleo, pallere, pallui - to be pale; pallesco, pallescere, pallui - to become pale; pallor, palloris, m. - paleness, pallor] 

palpor, palpari, palpatus sum - to touch softly, stroke

palpable - 1. readily seen; obvious; 2. able to be felt: Older women are urged to get an annual mammogram and not to wait until a lump in the breast becomes palpable. Also: palpability, palpableness, palpate (to examine medically by touching), palpation, palpator. 

palus, pali, m. - stake

impale - 1) to pierce through with something pointed: In a Halloween tragedy, a young girl dressed as a witch accidentally impaled herself on her broomstick when she jumped from a porch. 2) to render helpless, as if pierced through. Also: impalable, impalability, impaler, impalement. 

palus, paludinis, f. - swamp, marsh

paludal - of, pertaining to, or produced by marshes: Alligators and cottonmouths are two of the most feared paludal residents of Louisiana. [paluster, palustris, palustre - swampy, marshy]

par, paris - equal

disparage - 1) to speak disrespectfully of, try to lessen the importance of:: If we are unwilling to face our own weaknesses, we will be inclined to disparage those who have helped us in times of greatest need. 2) to lower in esteem, bring discredit upon. Also: disparagement. 

parity -1) equality; 2) equivalence in the value of currencies of two or more countries: Because of the lack of parity between the Japanese and American currencies, Japan can import inexpensively from America, and Japanese tourists can travel inexpensively in this country. Also: disparity (inequality; difference). 

pars, partis, f. - part, direction

partake (of) - 1) to take some: The old hermit ate little. On days when he was hungry, he partook of food; on most days, he fasted. 2) to have some of the qualities (of). Also: partakable, partaker.  

partiality - unfairly favoring one person, group, party over another: Accused one time too many of partiality, she retired from officiating and took up coaching. Also: impartial, impartiality, partial, partiality. 

participle - a word having characteristics of both verb and adjective; a verbal adjective: In the phrase "the man eating a sandwich," the word "eating" is a present active participle. Also: participial. [participium, participi, n. - participle; participialis, participiale - of or pertaining to a participle] 

particularism - exclusive devotion to one particular party, system, etc.: The keynote speaker exhorted us to avoid  particularism by being open-minded and tolerant. Also: particularist, paticularistic. [particula, particulae, f. - small part] 

partisan - (n.) a person who strongly and unreasoningly supports one person, party, or cause; (adj.) unreasoningly supportive or a single person, party, etc.; like a partisan: It is common in Washington, when one cannot garner support from the opposition party, to complain of partisan politics. Also: partisanism (partisan spirit), partisanship. 

tripartite - having three parts; threefold: Some former Latin students can still quote the opening lines of De Bello Gallico, in which Julius Caesar describes the tripartite division of Gaul. Also: tripartition, bipartite (divided into two parts), bipartition. [tripartitus, tripartita, tripartitum - tripartite; bipartitus, bipartita, bipartitum - bipartite; partio, partire, partivi, partitus - to share, divide] 

parsimonia, parsimoniae, f. - thrift, frugality

parsimonious - excessively thrifty or frugal; stingy: It’s one thing to be careful how you spend your money and quite another to be parsimonious. Also: parsimoniousness, parsimony. 

pateo, patere, patui - to be open, stand open

patency - 1) the state of being obvious; 2) in medicine, the state of being unobstructed: Cardiac vein grafts have a ten-year patency rate of 50 percent. Also: patent (evident, obvious).

patent (adj.) - open to observation, obvious, evident: The judge had no trouble recognizing the arrangement for what it was: a patent attempt to avoid paying taxes. 

pater, patris, m. - father

paternal - having to do with, derived from, or on the side of the father: The youngest son was said to bear a strong resemblance to his paternal grandfather. Also: paternalism (system of controlling others as a father controls his children), paternalist, paternalistic. [paternus, paterna, paternum - paternal] 

paternity - fatherhood: Kafka wrote that the greatest thing a man can achieve is paternity, although he himself never became a father. 

patriarch - 1) a father who rules a tribe or family; 2) a venerable old man; 3) the founder of a company: When the superannuated patriarch finally retires this summer, he will be succeeded as CEO by his oldest son. 4) any of several  high-ranking church officials. Also: patriarchal, patriarchic, patriarchical, patriarchy (a form of social organization in which the father is the head of the family or clan). 

patrician - in ancient Rome, a member of the nobility: Many patricians are buried along the Appian Way, the road that runs from Rome to the port city of Capua. [patricius, patricia, patricium - patrician, noble] 

patricide - the killing of one's father: It is said that the old king was plagued by the fear of patricide. Also: patricidal. [caedo, caedere, cecidi, caesus - to cut down; to kill] 

patrimony - 1) an inheritance from one’s father; 2) an inherited characteristic: More resigned than I, my brother replied, "Baldness is our common patrimony, and we'll just have to live with it." Also: patrimonial. [patrimonium, patrimoni, n. - an inheritance from one’s father] 

patristics - the study of the fathers of the Christian church: Fred says that he had a friend in the seminary who always fell asleep in patristics class. Also: patristic (having to do with the church fathers), patristical. 

patronize - 1) to support; 2) to treat in a condescending manner: No one likes to be patronized, not even by friends. Also: patron (regular customer; supporter of the arts), patronage (favor; condescending favor), patroness, patronizable, patronization. [patronus, patroni, m. (patrona, patronae, f.) - protector (protectress)] 

patior, pati, passus - to suffer, endure

dispassionate - free from emotion or prejudice; impartial: Reporters for the school newspaper are expected to write dispassionate, factual news accounts; editorializing, they are told, belongs on editorial pages. Also: dispassion, dispassionateness.

passible - capable of feeling, especially pain and suffering: Here is an interesting philosophical question for theists: Is God passible or impassible? Also: impassibility, impassible, impassibleness, passibility.

patria, patriae, f. - country, fatherland

expatriate - 1) to force to leave the country; banish, exile; 2) to withdraw from residence in or allegiance to one's native land: The poet Ezra Pound expatriated himself and went to Italy, where he became an admirer of the dictator Mussolini and broadcast Fascist propaganda to the United States. Also: expatriation. 

repatriation - returning or being allowed to return to one's own country: Einstein came to believe that his German repatriation of 1914 had been a mistake. Also: repatriate (to send back, or allow to return to, one's own country; to restore citizenship to). 

pauci, paucae, pauca - few

paucity - fewness (small number); scarcity (small amount): Always able to laugh at himself, old Jim used to say that his corpulence made up for a paucity of brain cells. [paucitas, paucitatis, f. - a small number, scarcity] 

pax, pacis, f. - peace

pacific - 1) peaceable, not warlike; 2) calm: The king's pacific countenance belied his intention of invading his guests' country within a week. Also: pacifiable, pacificate (to bring into a peaceful condition; to pacify), pacification (a pacifying or being pacified), pacifier, pacify. [pacificus, pacifica, pacificum - peacemaking, peaceable] 

pacifism - opposition to all wars; refusal, for reasons of conscience, to participate in any war: The mathematician and philosopher Bertrand Russell was a staunch proponent of pacifism. Also: pacifist (a person who is opposed to all wars), pacifistic. [pacificus, cf. pacific] 

pecco, peccare, peccavi, peccatus - to commit a sin, offend, transgress, err

impeccable - faultless, flawless: Anyone who claims that his past is impeccable is either a god or a liar. 2) incapable of sin, sinless. Also: impeccability, peccable (capable of wrongdoing), peccability. [peccatum, peccati, n. - fault, transgression, sin; peccatus, peccatus, m. - a failing, fault]

pecunia, pecuniae, f. - money

impecunious - having no money, broke: Can an impecunious professional gambler collect unemployment compensation? Also: impecuniosity (lack of money), impecuniousness (impecuniosity). [pecuniosus, pecuniosa, pecuniosum - wealthy, moneyed] 

pecuniary - having to do with money: Pecuniary problems drove him to drink, and drinking dulled his financial insights, thus creating a downward spiral with skid row at the bottom. [pecuniarius, pecuniaria, pecuniarium - of or pertaining to money] 

pedes. peditis, m. - someone going on foot, foot-traveler

pedestrian - (n.) someone who goes on foot; (adj.) 1. of or pertaining to pedestrians; 2. commonplace, lacking in imagination or vitality: The interviewers found the applicant’s ideas too pedestrian for their avant-garde magazine. Also: pedestrianism (the practice of traveling on foot; commonplace quality), pedestrianize (to walk). [pedester, pedestris, pedestre - on foot]

peior, peius - worse

pejorative - a derogatory or disparaging word or phrase, especially one whose basic meaning has changed for the worse: There's no getting around it: "queer" is a pejorative, an unfortunate word indeed, for it cannot be used in its original sense, and it should not be used in its acquired sense. Also: pejoration (a worsening; a change of meaning for the worse). 

pello, pellere, pepuli, pulsus - to drive; to defeat

compel - 1) to force; 2) to get by force: An absolute ruler can compel obedience but not gratitude, trust, and love. [compello, compellere, compuli, compulsus - to bring together; to force a person to do something, compel] 

compelling - 1) that compels; 2) irresistibly interesting or attractive; 3) very convincing; strongly persuasive: The keynote speaker gave compelling reasons for active, thoughtful participation in government. [compello, cf. compel] 

compulsive - 1) compelling; having to do with the use of force; 2) having to do with compulsion (an irresistible, repeated impulse to perform some irrational act): Compulsive workers, i.e., workaholics, are well advised to remember the old adage: "All work and no play make Jack a dull boy." Also: compulsiveness, compulsivity. [compello, cf. compel] 

compulsory - obligatory; required: We have an assembly at sixth period, and attendance is compulsory. Also: compulsoriness. [compello, cf. compel] 

dispel - to cause to vanish; to drive away and scatter: The principal wanted to dispel the misconception that year-round school necessarily meant more school days. [dispello, dispellere, dispuli, dispulsus - to drive away; to disperse] 

impel - 1) to cause to move forward; to drive; to push; 2) to cause; to force; to compel: To this day she does not know what impelled her to try out for the team. [impello, impellere, impuli, impulsus - to drive against; to set in motion] 

impulsive - acting or likely to act suddenly (with little or no premeditation): You need to think before you act; impulsive behavior can get you in trouble. Also: impulse (a sudden driving force or inclination to act), impulsion (an impelling or being impelled), impulsiveness, impulsivity (impulsiveness). [impulsus, impulsus, m. - pressure, push] 

pendeo, pendere, pependi - to hang (down), be suspended

penchant - a strong inclination, fondness, taste or liking for something: Happy are they whose penchant and duty are one and the same.

pendulous - 1) hanging down loosely: The long, pendulous nasal appendage of the elephant fascinates both children and adults. 2) swinging freely; 3) fluctuating. [pendulus, pendula, pendulum - hanging]

pendo, pendere, pependi, pensus - to suspend, to hang; to weigh; to consider

append - to add, attach, or affix as a supplement: To his report he appended a note of gratitude to management and staff. Also: appendage (a subordinate attached part), appendant (attached), appendance, appendancy, appendectomy (surgical removal of the appendix). [appendo, appendere, appendi, appensus - to weigh out; appendix, appendicis, f. - addition] 

pendulus, pendula, pendulum - hanging

pendulous - 1) hanging loosely; swinging freely: The short legs, sad eyes, and pendulous ears of the Basset hound all contribute to its lugubrious appearance. 2) undecided, vacillating. Also: pendular, pendulousness, pendulum. [pendeo, pendere, pependi - to hang, be suspended]

penuria, penuriae, f. - need, want; lack of the necessities of life

penury - terrible poverty, extreme want; destitution: Because their house has only one bathroom, they think that penury itself has taken up residence with them. Also: penurious (stingy, miserly; indigent), penuriousness. 

percolo, percolare, percolavi, percolatus - to strain

percolate - 1) to cause or allow (a liquid) to pass through a porous body (filter); 2) (of a liquid) to drain through small spaces; to filter through: They loved the aroma of percolating coffee on a lazy Sunday morning. Also: percolable, percolative, percolation, percolator. [colum, coli, n. - strainer, per (prep. w/ acc,) - through]

perdo, perdere, perdidi, perditus - to destroy, do away with

perdition - 1) loss of one’s soul; damnation: To say that perdition for Jonathan Edwards was a bleaker state than that envisioned by many modern theologians is to understate the difference. 2) hell; 3) utter loss or ruin. [perditor, perditoris, m. - destroyer]

perfidiosus, perfidiosa, perfidiosum - faithless, treacherous

perfidious - faithless, treacherous: In a song from the 1950’s called “Perfidia,” the singer says good-bye to his perfidious lover. Also: perfidiousness, perfidy. [perfidia, perfidiae, f. - faithlessness; perfidus, perfida, perfidum - faithless] 

perfungor, perfungi, perfunctus sum - to perform, discharge, execute

perfunctory - 1. done routinely (merely to discharge a duty): After a perfunctory appearance at a neighbor’s graduation reception, he got down to the real business of the day, golfing. 2. lacking interest; indifferent; acting merely to discharge a duty. Also: perfunctoriness. [perfunctio, perfunctionis, f. - a performing, discharging] 

periculum, periculi, n. - danger

imperil - to place in danger; endanger: He avoided the collision only by swerving blindly; his lack of concentration had imperiled the lives of everyone in the van. Also: imperilment, peril (danger), perilless, perilous, perilousness. [periculosus, periculosa, periculosum - dangerous] 

permuto, permutare, permutavi, permutatus - to change completely

permutation - a rearrangement, transformation, alteration: Because Latin is a highly inflected language, word-order permutations involving basic structural words are possible with no change of meaning. Also: permutate (to cause to undergo a permutation), permutable, permutability, permutableness, permutational, permutationist, permute (to alter, change), permuter. [muto, mutare, mutavi, mutatus - to change ; permutatio, permutationis, f. - a complete change]

perniciosus, perniciosa, perniciosum - destructive

pernicious - causing great harm: It was obvious to all who knew the victim that the reporter’s statement was a pernicious lie; consequently, he was sued for libel. Also: perniciousness. [nex, necis, f. - (violent) death; perniciabilis, perniciabile - destructive; pernicies, perniciei, f. - destruction]

perpetuus, perpetua, perpetuum - continuous, constant

perpetual - lasting forever; never ceasing: Alchemy, the fountain of youth, and perpetual motion have all been recognized as fantasy, haven't they? Also: perpetuable, perpetuality, perpetualness, perpetuance, perpetuate (to make perpetual; to keep from being forgotten), perpetuation, perpetuator, perpetuity. [perpetuo, perpetuare, perpetuavi, perpetuatus - to cause to continue, make continual; perpetuitas, perpetuitatis, f. - continuous succession] 

perpetuate - to cause to continue; to preserve from oblivion: Not wishing to perpetuate a lie, some parents prefer not to instill in their children a belief in Santa Claus. Also: perpetual (lasting forever or indefinitely long), perpetuality, perpetualness, perpetuable, perpetuance, perpetuation, perpetuator, perpetuity (state or quality of being perpetual). [perpetuitas, perpetuitatis, f. - continuity; perpetuo - constantly; perpetuo, perpetuare - to cause to continue]

perspicax, perspicacis - penetrating, acute, sharp-sighted

perspicacious - having keen powers of observation and understanding: The perspicacious youngster took delight in catching his teachers in mistakes. Also: perspicaciousness, perspicacity, perspicuity (clearness, lucidity), perspicuous (clearly presented, easily understood, lucid), perspicuousness. [perspicientia, perspicientiae, f. - a full awareness; perspicio, perspicere, perspexi, perspectus - to look through, see through; perspicuitas, perspicuitatis, f. - clearness; perspicuus, perspicua, perspicuum - transparent; evident, clear] 

perspicio, perspicere, perspexi, perspectus - to look through; to examine; to observe

perspicuous - clear, lucid; easily understood: Behind every perspicuous report is a logical mind. Also: perspicuity, perspicuousness. [perspicientia, perspicientiae, f. - full knowledge; perspicuitas, perspicuitatis, f. - clearness; perspicuus, perspicua, perspicuum - bright, clear]

pertineo, pertinere, pertinui - reach, extend; belong, pertain; tend; apply

pertinent - pertaining to the matter at hand; relevant; appropriate: The chairman interrupted the speaker: "If you have something pertinent to say, please continue; otherwise, please take a seat." Also: impertinent, pertinence, pertinency. [per (prep. w/ acc.) - through; teneo, tenere, tenui, tentus - hold]

perturbo, perturbare, perturbavi, perturbatus - disturb, confuse, confound

perturbation - 1. act of disturbing or disquieting; 2) a disturbed or agitated condition: Instead of calling to complain, she endured for years the sleeplessness and perturbation caused by the barking of the neighbor’s dog. 3. cause of disturbance or disquiet. Also: perturb, perturbable, perturbability, perturbatious, perturbative (having a tendency to perturb), perturbedness, perturber, perturbator (one who perturbs), perturbment. [perturbatio, perturbationis, f. - confusion, disorder]

pervado, pervadere, pervasi - to go through; to spread

pervade - to be spread throughout: Consumerism, the idea that the increased consumption of goods is desirable, pervades American society. Also: pervader, pervasion, pervasive, pervasiveness. [per (prep. w/ acc.) - through; vado, vadere - to go, walk, rush]

pervasive - tending to spread throughout: The PTA adopted a resolution urging all members to oppose the pervasive influence of violent films in the community. Also: pervade (to spread throughout; to exist throughout), pervader, pervasion, pervasiveness. [per (prep. w/ acc.) - through; vado, vadere - to go, hasten] 

pervius, pervia, pervium - passable, affording a passage, having a road through

impervious - impenetrable; not capable of being affected or disturbed: Impervious to the criticism of friend or foe, Mary sailed through life with no thought of becoming mired in shark-infested water. Also: imperviousness. [impervius, impervia, impervium - impassable] 

pes, pedis, m. - foot

biped - a two-footed animal: Not all bipeds are mammals; birds, for example, have two feet, but they do not nurse their young. Also: bipedal, bipedalism (the condition of being two-footed), bipedality. [bis - twice; pedalis, pedale - having the length of a foot] 

pedestal - the base on which a column or statue stands: The professor had a way of placing his students on imaginary pedestals. 

pedigree - 1) a list of ancestors; 2) line of descent; ancestry: Despite an impeccable pedigree, the lab had a splotch of white on its chest. Also: pedigreed (having a verified purebred ancestry). 

pedometer - an instrument used by runners and walkers to measure the distance they run or walk: With pedometer securely attached, she set out to establish a personal record. 

pessimus, pessima, pessimum - worst

pessimist - a person who tends to look on the dark side of things and to expect the worst: The pessimist looks at life, sees suffering and death, and stops looking. Also: pessimism, pessimistic. 

peto, petere, petivi, petitus - to seek; to beg, ask; to attack; to aim at

petulant - irritable over trifles; peevish: Spoiled since birth, the petulant child needed time to adjust to the expectations of teachers and classmates. Also: petulance. [petulans, petulantis - impudent; petulantia, petulantiae, f. - impudence] 

pietas, pietatis, f. - religiousness, devotion; sense of duty towards God, parents, or country

piety - 1) reverence for God, devout fulfillment of religious duties: In practice, piety means different things to different people; however, most will agree that attendance at church services does not, in and of itself, satisfy its demands. 2) dutiful respect for one’s parents. Also: pious (showing respect for God and for one’s religion; real or pretended religiousness [pio, piare, piavi, piatus - to satisfy with sacred rites; pius, pia, pium - dutiful, devout, religious] 

pilus, pili, m. - a single hair

piliform - having the form of or resembling hair: Today many wigs are made of piliform strands of synthetic fiber, which are nearly indistinguishable from real human hair.

placeo, placere, placui, placitus - to please, be agreeable to

complacent - pleased with oneself (without an awareness that one's luck can change); self-satisfied: Coaches caution their victorious teams not to become complacent. Also: complacence, complacency. [complaceo, complacere, complacui, complacitus - to please greatly] 

placebo - a pill, tablet, etc. given to someone as medicine which has no medicinal ingredients: If it can be shown that a placebo is as effective as a trusted psychiatric medication, are doctors morally bound to inform patients of this fact and/or to change their medication?

placid - calm, peaceful, tranquil, pleasantly quiet: Behind the placid countenance was a spirit at war with itself. Also: placidity, placidness. [placidus, placida, placidum - calm, quiet] 

placo, placare, placavi, placatus - to calm, soothe, quiet, appease

implacable - not to be pacified or appeased: In Nathaniel Hawthorne’s novel The Scarlet Letter, Hester Prynne appeals to her husband, Roger Chillingworth, to cease his relentless persecution of the Reverend Mr. Dimmesdale; however, the implacable Chillingworth, consumed with vengeance, refuses her request. Also: implacability, implacableness. [implacabilis, implacabile - unappeasable; implacatus, implacata, implacatum - unappeased; cf. also placate] 

placate - to soothe, satisfy, appease, propitiate, conciliate: Throughout history, people have endeavored to placate their angry god or gods by means of prayers and offerings. Also: placater, placation. [placabilis, placabile - easily appeased; placabilitas, placabilitatis, f. - appeasableness; placamen, placaminis, n. - a means of appeasing; placatio, placationis, f. - an appeasing; cf. also implacable] 

plebs, plebis, f. - the common people

plebiscite - a direct vote by the people on a political issue: The United States has a representative democracy, which means that most political issues are decided by representatives elected by the people, not by plebiscite. Also: plebiscitory (adj.). [scisco, sciscere, scivi, scitus - to investigate; to enact, approve by voting] 

plenus, plena, plenum - full

plenitude - abundance; fullness; completeness: Much of the plenitude of ancient Greek science, lost to the West during the Dark Ages, was rediscovered in the libraries of the Arabs. Also: plenitudinous.

plico, plicare, plicavi, plicatus - to fold

applicable - that can be applied; suitable; appropriate; relevant: In his Critique of Practical Reason, Immanuel Kant formulated what he believed to be a moral law applicable to all men in every moral situation. Also: applicability, applicableness, inapplicable, inapplicableness, inapplicability. [applico, applicare, applicavi, applicatus - to apply to; to attach; applicatio, applicationis, f. - application; attachment] 

explicate - to clarify, to explain fully: As part of her master's exam, she had to explicate a poem by Goethe and a short story by Kafka. Also: explicable (able to be explained), explication, explicative (that explains), explicator, explicatory (explicative), explication de texte (careful interpretation of a literary work). [explico, explicare, explicavi, explicatus - to spread out; to disentangle; explicatio, explicationis, f. - unfolding; explanation] 

explicit - clearly stated, leaving nothing implied, definite, precise, unambiguous: Her explicit instructions that she not be interrupted during the meeting having been disregarded, she had little choice but to reprimand her secretary. Also: explicitness. [explico, cf. explicate] 

implicate - to show or prove to be involved in: The drug dealer's confession implicated three other people. Also: implication, implicational, implicative, implicatory. [implico, implicare, implicavi, implicatus - to enfold; to entangle; implicatio, implicationis, f. - entwining; entangling] 

implicit - 1) suggested or meant though not clearly stated: Implicit in TV commercials is the message that the viewer needs the product advertised. 2) involved as an essential part; 3) without doubt or hesitation; unquestioning. Also: implicitness, implicity. [implicitus, implicita, implicitum - entwined; entangled] 

inexplicable - unable to be explained: Among the inexplicable phenomena of nature is the ability of certain birds to migrate annually, across vast expanses of water, to the same place at the same time. Also: inexplicability, inexplicableness. [explico, cf. explicate; inexplicabilis, inexplicabile - intricate; inexplicable] 

supplicant - someone who asks or prays for something humbly and earnestly: Despite their prayers for rain, the supplicants were criticized by the pastor because no one had brought along an umbrella. Also: suppliance, suppliant (supplicant), supplicate, supplication, supplicatory. [supplico, sipplicare, supplicavi, supplicatus - to implore, beseech; supplicatio, supplicationis, f. - solemn entreaty or thanksgiving] 

plumbum, plumbi, n. - lead

plummet - (n.) a piece of lead or other substance hung at the end of a line, used to determine depth or verticality; plumb bob; (v.) to fall straight down, plunge: As Enron stock plummeted, many an employee’s dream of a comfortable retirement vanished. [plumbeus, plumbea, plumbeum - leaden, made of lead]

plures, plura - more

plurality - 1) the condition of being plural; 2) majority: If you need a plurality to win, and if an even number of votes is cast, then you must win by two votes. 3) the difference between the largest number of votes and the next largest. [pluralis, plurale - plural] 

pluralistic - of or pertaining to a society with groups distinctive in ethnic origins, religion, etc.: If the United States is to become a true "melting pot," our pluralistic society must evolve a society where intermarriage is the rule rather than the exception. Also: pluralism (the existence in a society of groups distinctive in ethnic origins, religion, etc.), pluralist (one who favors pluralism), pluralistic. 

pluvialis, pluviale - rainy; of rain

pluvial - of or pertaining to rain, especially much rain; rainy: By examining the terraces of Lake Bonneville, a dried-up lake in Utah that once covered some 20,000 square miles, geologists have found that, 10,000 years ago, in the latest pluvial period, the level of the lake was 600 feet higher than the lake bed’s present elevation. Also: pluvious (rainy), pluviosity. [pluvia, pliviae, f. - rain; pluvius, pluvia, pluvium - rainy]

poena, poenae, f. - punishment, penalty

impunity - exemption from punishment, injury, or loss: No young person should be allowed to violate school and domestic rules with impunity. [punio, punire, punivi, punitus - to punish; impunitas, impunitatis, f. - impunity] 

penal - of, relating to, or constituting punishment: The defendant has been convicted of violating the laws of this state and must be sentenced according to the statutes of the penal code. [poenalis, poenale - penal] 

punitive - concerned with or inflicting punishment: Opponents of capital punishment argue that the death penalty is purely punitive and does not deter violent crime more effectively than imprisonment. Also: punitiveness, punitory. [punio, cf. impunity] 

pondus, ponderis, n. - (a) weight

ponderous - 1) of great weight, very heavy; 2) heavy and awkward; 3) dull: Novels like James Joyce’s Ulysses and Thomas Mann’s Doktor Faustus can be read with profit by well-educated readers, but not by most high-school students, who peremptorily pronounce them ponderous. Also: ponder (to consider carefully and thoroughly, to weigh in the mind), ponderer, ponderability, ponderable (able to be considered deeply; able to be weighed), ponderation (act of weighing), ponderousness, ponderosity. [pondero, ponderare, ponderavi, ponderatus - to weigh; to consider; ponderosus, ponderosa, ponderosum - weighty meaningful; pondo (adv.) - by weight] 

pono, ponere, posui, positus - to put, place

apposite - appropriate; relevant: Each page consists of a black-and-white photograph and an apposite, superimposed quotation. Also: appositeness. [appono, apponere, apposui, appositus - to place near; to add to] 

apposition - the placing of a word or phrase immediately after another word having the same grammatical function so that the latter explains the former: In the sentence "Dr. Paul, the first scheduled speaker, is sick today," "the first scheduled speaker" is in apposition with "Dr. Paul." Also: appose (to place opposite or near), appositional, appositive (a word or phrase in apposition). [appono, cf. apposite] 

depose - 1) to remove from a position of authority: During the French Revolution, King Louis XVI was deposed and executed. 2) to testify under oath. Also: deposable, deposer, deposition (a removal from office; a testimony given under oath), depositional. [depono, deponere, deposui, depositus - to put down; to entrust; to be done with] 

exponential - characterized by extraordinary increment or growth, literally or figuratively as the value of xy increases with each increment of y: One of the more important questions facing our society is what to do about the exponential increase in violence in recent years. [expono, exponere, exposui, expositus - to cast out; to display] 

exposé - a public disclosure of wrongdoing: There was a time, not long ago, when reputable journalists would not write exposés of the private lives of political figures; but times have changed. [expono, cf. exponential] 

exposition - 1) explanatory writing or speaking; 2) an exhibition: Most dealers plan to attend the international exposition of computer software in Leipzig in the fall. Also: expositional. [expositio, expositionis, f. - statement, exposition] 

expository - explanatory (having the nature of writing or speaking that explains): Our class learned that clarity is an indispensable component of expository prose. Also: expositive. [expositus, exposita, expositum - open, exposed] 

expound - to explain: The speaker expounded his ideas about the importance of mythology in the modern world. Also: expositor (a person who expounds), exponent (expositor), expounder. [expono, cf. exponential] 

impose - 1) to place (upon): The repressive government has imposed yet another tax on the already destitute population. 2) to force oneself on others. Also: imposable, imposer. [impono, imponere, imposui, impositus - place upon, impose] 

imposition - 1) the forcing of oneself on others: She hoped that her visit would not be seen as an imposition. 2) something placed upon someone, usually as a burden. [impono, cf. impose] 

indispose - to make unfit, unable, or unwilling: Repeated interruptions indispose a person to serious study. Also: indisposition. [indispositus, indisposita, indispositum - confused, without order; dispono, disponere, disposui, dispositus - to distribute; to arrange] 

interpose - 1) to put between; to insert between: The magician interposed a cloth between himself and the audience. 2) to interject. Also: interposable, interposal, interposer, interposition (an interposing or a thing interposed). [interpono, interponere, interposui, interpositus - to place between or among, insert; interpositio, interpositionis, f. - insertion, introduction] 

juxtapose - to place close together or side by side: By juxtaposing two things, you may become aware of hitherto unnoticed similarities and differences. Also: juxtaposition, juxtapositional. [iuxta (adv.; prep. w/ acc.) - near] 

postpositive - placed after or at the end of a word: In French, unlike English, most adjectives are postpositive. Also: postposition (a word or particle placed after or at the end of a word), postpositional. [postpono, postponere, postposui, postpositus - to place behind; to esteem less] 

propound - to put forward for consideration; to propose. A theoretical physicist propounds hypotheses, which he then seeks to prove. Also: propounder. [propono, proponere, proposui, propositus - to display; to publish; to propose] 

superpose - to place on, over, or above: One photographic negative can be superposed on another and the two printed as one mysterious, "supernatural" picture. Also: superposable, superposition, superimpose, superimposition. [superpono, superponere, superposui, superpositus - to place or lay upon, put over] 

transpose - to change the order or position of; to interchange: One clever student opined that the teacher had inadvertently transposed the two letters of the word "on." Also: transposable, transposability, transposer, transposition, transpositional. [transpono, transponere, transposui, transpositus - to remove; to transfer] 

pons, pontis, m. - bridge

pontoon - 1) a flat-bottomed boat or other floating object used to support a bridge: His uncle served in a corps of engineers that specialized in the placement of pontoons for amphibious attacks by sea and for crossing rivers. 2) boat-shaped parts that replace wheels on airplanes that take off from and land on water. 

populus, populi, m. - people, nation

dispeople - to deprive of all or many people: In the spring of 1995 there was initial concern that the ebola virus, that sprang up in a remote rural area of Zaire, might spread and dispeople towns, cities, and even countries. Also: unpeople (dispeople); depopulate (dispeople, unpeople), depopulation, depopulative, depopulator. 

populace - the masses, the common people: It has been pointed out that the state lottery constitutes a regressive means  of raising revenue, but don't tell that to the populace, who love it. 

populist - (n.) anyone who claims to represent the interests of the common people: The populist candidate failed to find sufficient support among the middle class to offset his overwhelming unpopularity among the wealthy and powerful. (adj.) of or pertaining to a populist. Also: populistic (populist), populism (espousal of policies that favor the common people or working class). 

porta, portae, f. - gate

portal - door; gate; entrance, usually large and imposing: Arriving at the portal, the king knocked three times ceremoniously; to his dismay, the great door remained closed. 

porticus, porticus, f. - colonnade; porch

portico - a porch or covered walkway, often across the front of a building, having a roof supported by columns: As we walked by, the President was standing on the portico of the White House. 

porto, portare, portavi, portatus - to carry

comport - behave (oneself) in a specified manner; deport: Most of the prisoners of war comported themselves with dignity and courage. Also: comportment (behavior). [comporto, comportare, comportavi, comportatus - to bring together, gather] 

deport - 1) to force (an alien) to leave a country; banish: Mexicans who cross the border to the United States illegally live in fear that they will be discovered and deported. 2) comport. Also: deportable, deportation (deporting or being deported), deportee (a person sentenced to deportation); deportment (behavior; demeanor; bearing). [deporto, deportare, deportavi, deportatus - to carry down or off, take away] 

portage - the carrying of boats and supplies overland from one river, lake, etc. to another: For fishermen in the wilderness areas of northern Minnesota and southern Canada, portage is sometimes the most efficient means of moving from one lake to another. 

possum, posse, potui - to be able (with infinitive)

impotent - 1) lacking power: Known best for his impotent diatribes, the old codger was more pitied than feared. 2) sexually powerless (said of males). Also: impotence, impotency. [impotens, impotentis - powerless;] 

omnipotence - the quality or state of being all-powerful: Philosophers struggle with the apparent incongruity of God's omnipotence and infinite goodness, on the one hand, and the fact of human suffering, on the other. Also: omnipotence. [omnipotens, omnipotentis - almighty] 

plenipotentiary - a person to whom full authority has been given to act as a representative: The Vice President met last week with plenipotentiaries of all fifty states to discuss urgent environmental concerns. [plenus, plena, plenum - full; potentia, potentiae, f. - power] 

potent - strong; influential; convincing: She won the debate because her arguments were intrinsically potent and cleverly presented. Also: potency (strength, power; capacity for development). [potens, potentis - powerful] 

potentate - a person having great power; a ruler: Turkish potentates were able to have harems because Moslem law permits men to have four wives and any number of concubines. [potentatus, potentatus, m. - political power, rule] 

post (prep. with acc.) - after, behind

postdate - give or write a date later than the true date: She postdated the check so that it could not be cashed before her next deposit. [do, dare, dedi, datus - to give] 

posthumous - happening after death; published after the death of the author: His publications include a book of poetry, several short stories, and a posthumous novel. Also: posthumousness. [humus, -i, f. - earth, ground; postumus, postuma, postumum - last born; born after father’s death] 

posterus, postera, posterum - following, next

posterity - 1) all succeeding generations: It seems probable that posterity will judge us harshly for our pollution of the environment. 2) all of a person's descendants. [posteritas, posteritatis, f. - posterity] 

postulo, postulare, postulavi, postulatus - to claim, demand, ask

postulate - (n.) proposition that is taken to be self-evident; (v.) 1) to assume the existence or truth of something, often as a basis for argument: Before beginning the discussion of the possibility of life after death, the speakers agreed to postulate the existence of a God who is omnipotent, omniscient, and infinitely good. 2) to demand, claim. Also: postulance, postulancy, postulant (candidate for admission to a religious order), postulantship, postulation, postulational, postulator. [postulatio, postulationis, f. - a demand, request]

praeceps, praecipitis - headlong, steep

precipitous - 1) steep like a precipice; 2) headlong: The precipitous devaluation of stocks at the end of 1929 led to the Great Depression. Also: precipice (a high and very steep cliff; an extremely hazardous situation), precipitant (falling or rushing headlong), precipitance, precipitancy (great haste; rashness), precipitousness. [praecipito, praecipitare, praecipitavi, praecipitatus - to cast down headlong; to fall headlong; to rush down headlong] 

precipitate - 1) to cause to happen before expected or desired: Republicans tend to argue that President Reagan’s policy of intolerance towards Communism precipitated the demise of the Soviet Union. 2) to rain, snow, drizzle, etc. Also: precipitateness, pricipitative, precipitator, precipitation. 

praecox, praecocis (praecoquis, praecoque) - premature

precocious - 1) prematurely developed: Do precocious children, as a rule, develop into extraordinary adults? 2) flowering before the appearance of leaves. Also: precociousness, precocity (early maturity). [coquo, coquere, coxi, coctus - to cook; to ripen] 

praeda, praedae, f. - loot

predatory - 1) characterized by or inclined to plundering; 2) capturing and feeding upon other animals: Many people maintain that cats, despite their predatory instincts, make good pets. Also: predation (the act of preying on another animal or other animals); predator (a predatory person or animal), predatoriness. [praedator, praedatoris, m. - plunderer; hunter; greedy man; praedatorius, praedatoria, praedatorium - plundering; praedatio, praedationis, f. - plundering; praedor, praedari, praedatus sum - to plunder] 

depredation - an act of plundering or laying waste; the condition that results from such acts: War is characterized not only by killing and depredation, but also by courage and selflessness. Also: depredate, depredator, depredatory, depredationist. [de (prep. w/ abl.) - from, down from; praedor, cf. predatory] 

prey - an animal hunted and killed for food: A predator must either die or adapt when its natural prey becomes extinct. 

praedico, praedicare, praedicavi, praedicatus - to make known, announce, proclaim

predicament - an unpleasantly difficult or dangerous situation: With headlights burning and keys locked in the car, he thought he was in an awful predicament until he remembered that the school’s security director had a device for opening locked car doors without a key. Also: predicamental. [praedicabilis, praedicabile - laudable, praisworthy; praedicatio, praedicationis, f. - proclamation; praedicator, praedicatoris, m. - eulogist]

predicate - (trans. v.) 1) to proclaim, assert; 2) to assert something of the subject of a logical proposition; (intrans. v.) to make an affirmation; (n.) 1) one of the two basic components of a clause, the other being the subject: The predicate consists of everything in a clause except the subject and its modifiers. 2) that which is affirmed or denied concerning the subject of a logical proposition. Also: predicable (assertable), predicability, predicableness, predicament, predicamental, predicant (pertaining to preaching; a preacher), predication, predicational, predicative, predicator (verb), predicatory (pertaining to preaching). [praedicabilis, praedicabile - praiseworthy; praedicatio, praedicationis, f. - proclamation; praedicator, praedicatoris, m. - a praiser; eulogist]

praegnans, praenantis - pregnant

impregnable - 1) that cannot be broken through or entered by force: After World War I, the French built the Maginot Line, a system of heavy fortifications along their eastern border, which they hoped would be impregnable; in 1940 the Germans captured it from the rear. 2) capable of being made pregnant or of being saturated. Also: impregnability, impregnate (to make pregnant or to saturate), impregnation, impregnator, impregnatory, pregnable (that can be broken through or entered by force), pregnability. 

praemium, praemi, n. - reward

premium - 1) reward; special offer; bonus: Each month the video club has a veritable truckload of tempting premiums. 2) an additional amount paid or to be paid; 3) a payment; fee. 

praeposterus, praepostera, praeposterum - inverted; in reverse order; absurd

preposterous - so contrary to nature, reason, or common sense as to be laughable; absurd: For many a believer the beliefs of others are preposterous: one man’s superstition is another man’s religion. Also: preposterousness.

praesagium, praesagi, n. - a presentiment, foreboding

presage - (n.) 1. presentiment, foreboding; 2. omen; 3. a prediction; (v.) 1. to portend, foreshadow: A farmer once told me that rain on Sunday before 7 a.m. presages a second rainfall that week. 2. to predict. Also: presageful, presager. [praesagio, praesagire, praesagivi - to perceive beforehand; praesagitio, praesagitionis, f. - a presentiment; praesagus, praesaga, praesagum - perceiving beforehand 

praesumo, praesumere, praesumsi, praesumptus - to take beforehand, take first; take for granted

presumptuous - taking too much for granted; acting without permission; impertinent: Not wanting to appear presumptuous, he couched his request in polite and deferential language. Also: presumable, presume, presumer, presumption, presumptive (presumed; giving reason for presumption), presumptuousness.

praeter (prep. w/ acc.) - beyond; (adv.) except

preternatural - outside the usual course of nature, abnormal: Before their fall, Adam and Eve are said to have had the preternatural gift of freedom from death. 2) supernatural. Also: preternaturalism (preternatural state or characteristic; recognition of the preternatural), preternaturality, preternaturalness.

praetereo, praeterire, praeterivi, praeteritus - to pass by, go by

preterit - (n.) 1) past tense; 2) verb in the past tense; (adj.) denoting a past state or action: The preterit forms of the English verbs play, go, and be are played, went, and was, respectively. Also: preterition (a passing over; omission), preteritive (expressing or limited to past tenses).

praevaricor, praevaricari - to be a false advocate

prevaricate - to lie, to speak untruthfully or misleadingly: Perhaps he who deliberately prevaricates in formally accusing an innocent person of a crime should suffer the expected punishment of the accused. Also: prevarication, prevaricative, prevaricator, prevaricatory. [praevaricator, praevaricatoris, m. - a double dealer, a false advocate] 

pragmaticus, pragmatica, pragmaticum - skilled in business or civil affairs

pragmatic - concerned with practical results: He was a realist; his approach to life was pragmatic, not speculative. Also: pragmatical, pragmaticalism, pragmatics, pragmaticism, pragmatism (branch of philosophy that stresses practical considerations as tests of value and truth), pragmatist, pragmatistic. 

pravus, prava, pravum - crooked, irregular, misshapen

depravity - wickedness, moral corruption: Who among us is the final arbiter of goodness? Among people of apparent good will we find disparate values, including moral values, so that sometimes one person's depravity is another person's virtue. Also: depravation, deprave, depravedness. [pravitas, pravitatis, f. - crookedness; depravatio, depravationis, f. - a distorting, distortion; depravo, depravare,---, depravatus - to make crooked, distort] 

precor, precari, precatus sum - to beg, entreat, pray

deprecate - to express strong disapproval of: Most Louisville east enders welcome plans for a bridge connecting the truncated I-265 in Kentucky with the truncated I-265 in Indiana by the most direct route; of course, many who would be inconvenienced by such a bridge deprecate those plans and find, as they maintain, compelling reasons against them. Also: deprecation, deprecative (deprecating), deprecator, deprecatoriness (deprecative condition or quality), deprecatory (deprecative).[deprecatio, deprecationis, f. - an attempt to avert by prayer or intercession; deprecator, deprecatoris, m. - intercessor; deprecor, deprecari, deprecatus sum - to try to avert by prayer, entreaty, or intercession] 

prehendo, prehendere, prehendi, prehensus - grasp, seize, lay hold of

prehensile - adapted for grasping or holding on: All monkeys have prehensile hands and feet; some have prehensile tails as well. Also: prehensible (able to be seized or grasped), prehensility.

premo, premere, pressi, pressus - to press; to crush, overpower

irrepressible - unable to be prevented from acting, kept down, or restrained: Who doesn't admire the irrepressible spirit of a person like Magic Johnson who, though afflicted with the AIDS virus, continues to achieve and to smile? Also: irrepressibility, irrepressibleness. [reprimo, reprimere, repressi, repressus - to hold back, keep back, restrain] 

oppress - 1) to govern harshly; 2) to weigh heavily on; to burden: There is no excuse for laws that favor the wealthy and oppress the poor. Also: oppressible, oppression, oppresive, oppressiveness, oppressor. [opprimo, opprimere, oppressi, oppressus - to overcome, crush; to surprise; oppressio, oppressionis, f. - pressing down, suppression] 

repress - to hold back; restrain: His inability to repress a smile betrayed the insincerity of his anger. Also: represser, repressible (able to be repressed), repression (a repressing or being repressed), repressive (tending to repress),  repressiveness, repressor. [reprimo, cf. irrepressible] 

suppress - 1) to stop by force; 2) to keep from appearing or being published; 3) to keep back; hold back; check: What student has never suppressed a yawn in school, even in a favorite class? Also: suppresser, suppressible, suppression, suppressive (having the quality or intent of suppression; causing suppression), suppressor. [supprimo, supprimere, suppressi, suppressus - to hold down; to suppress, conceal; suppressio, suppressionis, f. - a keeping back, embezzlement]

pretium, preti, n. - price

appreciable - enough to be noticed or felt: It has been said that acquiring a more effective methodology can raise a student's SAT scores appreciably. [ad (prep. w/ acc.) - to; toward] 

depreciate - 1) to reduce in value or price: The recent loss in value of the American dollar has depreciated American goods in the foreign market, thereby boosting our foreign sales. 2) to belittle, disparage; 3) (intr.) to drop in value or price. Also: appreciate (to raise the value or price of; to rise in value or price), appreciation, depreciation, depreciative, depreciator, depreciatory. [de (prep. w/ abl.) - from, down from] 

prex, precis, f. - request, entreaty, prayer

imprecate - to call down or invoke (curses, evil) upon a person: On the Tonight Show, the Great Swami (played by Johnny Carson), would regularly imprecate "the fleas of a thousand camels" upon the less than properly credulous or properly deferential Ed McMann. Also: imprecation (a curse; act of cursing), imprecator, imprecatory, precative, precatory (having to do with entreaty or supplication). [precarius, precaria, precarium - obtained by entreaty; precatio, precationis, f. - entreaty, request, prayer; precor, precari, precatus - to entreat, request, pray, beg]

precarious - 1) uncertain, insecure: Nothing is certain, and life is precarious at best; however, those who depend on the stock market as their primary source of retirement income, exacerbate precariousness. 2) dangerous. Also: precariousness. [precarius, precaria, precarium - obtained by entreaty or prayer; precatio, precationis, f. - prayer; precator, precatoris, m. - suppliant; precor, precari, precatus - ask, entreat, beg]

primus, -a, -um - first

primacy - the state of being first in rank, importance, time, etc.: Papal primacy has been a principle of the Roman Catholic Church for many centuries; the Eastern Orthodox Churches do not acknowledge this primacy. 

prima donna - 1) the principal female singer in an opera; 2) a temperamental or arrogant person: A receptionist must be able to deal with prima donnas and grumpy old men daily. [domina, dominae, f. - mistress] 

primal - having to do with the earliest ages of the world: Citing a primal need, she walked to the edge of the ocean and screamed. Also: primeval (primal), primordial (primal, primeval). [primaevus, primaeva, primaevum - young; primordium, primordi, n. - beginning, origin] 

primate - 1) any of an order of mammals including apes, monkeys, lemurs, and humans: As humans, it behooves us to be concerned about our fellow primates, whether in the wild or in zoos. 2) the highest-ranking bishop of a country or province. Also: primatologist, primatology (the branch of zoology dealing with primates). 

primogeniture - the state or fact of being the firstborn of the same parents: These days not many parents base their legacy on primogeniture. [gigno, gignere, genui, genitus - to beget; to bring forth] 

principatus, principatus, m. - beginning; , pre-eminence, supremacy

principate - supreme office or authority: Upon the death of Augustus, the principate passed to his adopted son, Tiberius.

prior, prius - former, first

prioritize - to arrange in order of precedence in time, importance, preference, etc. Some families consciously prioritize their material needs in order to spend their money wisely. Also: prioritization, priority.

pristinus, pristina, pristinum - former, previous;original

pristine - 1) unspoiled, uncorrupted; having its original purity: Thanks to skillful and patient restoration, century-old works of art are again able to be viewed in their pristine beauty. 2) characteristic of an earlier, or of the earliest, period.

probo, probare, probavi, probatus - to prove; to approve of

approbation - official approval or commendation: Her suggestions elicited the approbation of her commanding officer and the gratitude of her colleagues. Also: approbate (officially approve), approbator, approbative (showing approbation), approbativeness, approbatory. [approbo, approbare, approbavi, approbatus - to approve of; to make acceptable; approbatio, approbationis, f. - approval] 

probate - (v.) to establish the validity of a will: She will become the wealthiest person in town when her uncle's will is probated. (n.) the act or process of proving the validity of a will; 3) (adj.) having to do with probate. Also: probate court (a court concerned with the probating of wills). 

probe - (v.) to investigate; to search: By probing deeper and deeper into the universe, scientists may someday discover life beyond the planet earth. (n.) the act of probing; an investigation. Also: probative (serving to test; giving proof), probatory, probeable, prober. [probativus, probativa, probativum - of proof] 

probity - integrity; uprightness; honesty: The manager steadfastly refused to advance any employee whose probity had not been thoroughly tested. [probitas, probitatis, f. - honesty, uprightness] 

reprobate - (n.) an unprincipled or corrupt person: Executed as godless reprobates by their Puritan townsmen in 1692 and 1693, the 19 "witches" of Salem, Massachusetts, would probably not raise an eyebrow today. (adj.) unprincipled or corrupt; (v.) to condemn; reject. Also: reprobacy, reprobateness, reprobation (reprobating; disapproval; rejection), reprobationary. [reprobo, reprobare, reprobavi, reprobatus - to reprove] 

reprove - to express disapproval directly to a person at fault: There is a connotative difference between rebuke and reprove: the former implies criticism, the latter correction. Also: reproof (the act of reproving; something said in reproving), reproofless, reprovable, reproval (reproof), reprover. [reprobo, cf. reprobate] 

procuro, procurare, procuravi, procuratus - to take care of, look after

procure - to get, obtain, secure: Unable because of the railroad strike to procure the necessary means of production, many manufacturing companies were forced to close down. Also: procurable, procurance, procuration, procurator, procuratorate, procuratorship, procuratorial. [procuratio, procurationis, f. - management, administration; procurator, procuratoris, m. - manager, administrator]

profligo, profligare, profligavi, profligatus - to strike to the ground; to overthrow; to ruin

profligate - (adj.) 1. shamelessly wicked: 2. recklessly extravagant: When the profligate son returned home, the father killed a fattened calf for him, something he had never done for his faithful son; (n.) a very wicked person or a spendthrift. Also: profligacy (shameless dissipation; reckless extravagance), profligateness. [profligator, profligatoris, m. - a spendthrift] 

profundo, profundere, profudi, profusus - to pour out, cause to flow; to bring forth, produce; to waste

profusion - 1. abundance; large amount: The surplus income of people in technologically advanced countries has resulted in a profusion of luxury items there, while in other parts of the world people try to subsist on two or three dollars a day. 2. extravagance. Also: profuse (given freely and in large amounts), profuseness, profusive (lavish), profusiveness. [profusus, profusa, profusum - lavish, extravagant] 

profundus, profunda, profundum - deep, profound

profound - 1. very deep intellectually or emotionally: Perhaps there are intelligent beings somewhere in the universe by whom our profound thinkers would be seen as pitiably superficial. 2. far beneath the surface. Also: profoundness, profundity ( the state or quality of being profound). [profundum, profundi, n. - depth] 

proles, prolis, f. - offspring

prolific - 1. producing new individuals abundantly: Fish reproduce prolifically, and when natural predation is minimized, many of the young survive to adulthood. 2. highly productive. Also: proliferate (to grow by multiplication of parts; to spread rapidly), proliferation, proliferous (producing new individuals by budding or cell division), prolificacy, prolificness. [facio, facere, feci, factus - to do, make] 

promulgo, promulgare, promulgavi, promulgatus - to bring forth, publish, make known

promulgate - to make known formally, to announce officially: A reasonable state cannot expect conformity to a law that has not been adequately promulgated. Also: promulgation, promulgator. [promulgatio, promulgationis, f. - a making known, publishing]  

propinquus, propinqua, propinquum - near, neighboring

propinquity - nearness in time, place, or relationship: Their reacquaintance was made possible by the fortuitous propinquity of their theater seats. [propinquitas, propiquitatis, f. - nearness] 

propitius, propitia, propitium - favorable, kind

propitious - favorable: The restaurant’s success is in large measure attributable to its propitious location across from a popular shopping mall. Also: propiatiable, propitiate (to appease), propitiation, propitiative, propitiator, propitiatory (serving to propitiate), propitiousness. [propitio, propitiare,---, propitiatus - to appease] 

propono, proponere, proposui, propositus - to put forward, offer

proponent - someone who makes a proposition or supports a cause: When Congress is in session, proponents as well as opponents of pending legislation appear daily in front of the Capitol to demonstrate their support or opposition. 

proprius, propria, proprium - (one's) own

appropriate (v.) - 1) to set aside for a specific use; 2) to take possession of; to take as one's own: Plagiarism is the illegal appropriation of someone else's ideas or words. Also: appropriation, appropriative, appropriator. [ad (prep. w/ acc.) - to; towards] 

impropriety - 1) lack of conformity with what is fitting or proper; 2) improper conduct or expression: An innocent gesture in one society can be an impropriety in another. Also: propriety. [proprietas, proprietatis, f. - property, quality; ownership ; improprius, impropria, improprium - unsuitable] 

proprietor - 1) the owner of some property; 2) someone who owns and operates a store or business: The disgruntled customer stormed in and demanded to see the proprietor. Also: proprietal, proprietary, proprietorship, proprietress. [proprietas, cf. impropriety] 

prospicio, prospicere, prospexi, prospectus - to look forward; to see in a distance

prospective - 1) likely; expected: The company required prospective employees to undergo a rigorous, six-week training session. 2) looking to the future. Also: prospectivity, prospectiveness. 

prospector - a person who examines a region for gold, silver, etc.: News of the discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill brought thousands of prospectors to California in 1849. Also: prospect (to explore a region for gold, silver, etc.). 

prospectus - a printed statement, often in the form of a brochure, describing and advertising an investment opportunity, a university, a residential area, etc.: "If life there is as uninspiring as their prospectus," her father was overheard to say, "I prefer to stay in prosaic Peoria." [prospectus, prospectus, m. - (distant) view; sight] 

provideo, providere, providi, provisus - to foresee

provident - 1) careful about providing for the future: Provident people, we are told, begin early to put aside money for retirement. 2) prudent; frugal. Also: providence (care for the future; God's help and care), providential (fortunate; as if by divine providence), providentness. [providentia, providentiae, f. - foresight] 

provisional - temporary; for the time being: After World War II, the Allied Powers divided Germany into four provisional zones of military occupation. Also: provision (a statement stipulating a condition; providing for the future; something provided for the future), provisioner, provisionless, provisionality, provisionary (provisional). 

proviso - a statement in a legal document stipulating a condition; provision: The prenuptial agreement contained a proviso,  according to which his second wife would inherit everything he still owned at the time of his death; so he gave everything away before he died. Also: provisory (containing a proviso; conditional). 

provincia, procinciae, f. - province

provincial - narrow-minded, unsophisticated: The provincial attitude of several of the delegates made progress difficult. Also: provincialism (narrowness of outlook), provinciality, provincialize, provincialization. [provincialis, provinciale - pertaining to a province] 

proximus, proxima, proximum - nearest, next

proximate - 1) next; nearest; 2) approximate. The proximate cause of World War II was the German invasion of Poland; one of the remote causes was the Treaty of Versailles at the conclusion of World War I. Also: proximal, proximateness, proximation (next; nearest; proximate). 

proximity - nearness in space, time, etc.; vicinity; propinquity: He is under suspicion because of the proximity of the time of the murder to the time of his departure from town. [proximitas, proximitatis, f. - nearness, vicinity] 

prudens, prudentis - foreseeing; experienced; wise

prudent - wise in practical matters; judicious: The prudent man thinks before he acts or speaks. Also: prudence, prudential (having or showing prudence; having decision-making or advisory authority). [prudentia, prudentiae, f. - a foreseeing; skill; practical judgment] 

publicus, publica, publicum - public

publican - in ancient Rome, a collector of taxes, tolls, etc.: Be humble is the message of the parable of the publican and the Pharisee in the Bible. [publicanus, publicani, m. - tax collector] 

pueblo - 1) an Indian village built of adobe (a kind of clay) and stone, formerly common in the southwestern United States: Pueblo Indians still live in pueblos, mostly in the Rio Grande valley of New Mexico. 2) in Spanish America, a town or village. 

pudeo, pudere, pudui or puditus est - to be ashamed

impudent - impertinent, rude, disrespectful, insolent: She liked all her students (the ones who talked and the ones who didn’t, the ones who slept and the ones who stayed awake, the lazy and the diligent)--all, that is, except the impudent ones; those she could not abide. Also: impudence, impudency, impudentness, impudicity (immodesty), pudency. [impudens, impudentis - shameless; impudentia, impudentiae, f. - shamelessness; impudicitia, impudicitiae, f. - shamelessness; impudicus, impudica, impudicum - shameless; pudicitia, pudicitiae, f. - modesty, chastity; pudicus, pudica, pudicum - modest, chaste; pudor, pudoris, m. - shame; modesty]

puer, pueri, m. - boy

puerile - childish, immature: The congressman's puerile behavior shocked his constituents. Also: puerilism (childish behavior in an adult), puerility (childishness). [puerilis, puerile - boyish; childish] 

pugna, pugnae, f. - fight, battle

pugno, pugnare, pugnavi, pugnatus - to fight

impugn - to attack by words; to call into question: Not wishing to impugn the veracity of the headmistress, the girls attributed her statement to misinformation and misunderstanding. Also: impugnable, impugnability, impugnation, impugnment. [impugno, impugnare, impugnavi, impugnatus - to attack; impugnatio, impugnationis, f. - attack] 

pugilist - boxer: In ancient Greece, pugilists sat face to face and punched away at each other with their bare fists.  Also: pugilism (boxing), pugilistic. [pugil, pugilis, m. - boxer; pugnus, pugni, m. - fist] 

pugnacious - eager to fight: Bruno's pugnacious approach to problem solving is little appreciated by the other students. Also: pugnaciousness, pugnacity. [pugnax, pugnacis - fond of fighting; pugnacitas, pugnacitatis, f. - fondness for fighting]

repugnant - 1) distasteful, disagreeable: Zoos, a source of joy to many, are repugnant to some animal-rights advocates. 2) contradictory; inconsistent; 3) opposed; antagonistic; averse. Also: repugnance, repugnancy. [repugno, repugnare, repugnavi, repugnatus - to fight against, resist] 

pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum - beautiful; noble, fine

pulchritude - physical beauty: The report of Helen's pulchritude having reached far-off Troy, the Trojan prince Paris sailed to Greece and abducted her. Also: pulchritudinous (physically beautiful). [pulchritudo, pulchritudinis, f. - beauty] 

pulvis, pulveris, m. - dust, powder

pulverize - 1) to reduce to powder or dust; 2) to demolish completely: On the day after the local high school’s 30-0 victory in the first round of the state tournament, an alliterative headline read, "Panthers Pulverize Opponents." Also: pulverable (pulverizable), pulverizable, pulverization, pulverizer, pulverulent (consisting of, covered with, or crumbling to dust), pulverulence.

punctum, puncti, n. - a prick; a small puncture; a small point

punctilious - very attentive to details: Without dedicated, punctilious lab assistants, the pet project of many a scientist would have failed. Also: punctilio (detail, fine point), punctiliousness. [pungo, pungere, pupugi, punctus - to prink, puncture] 

pungo, pungere, pupugi, punctus - to prick, puncture

pungent - 1. having a sharp taste or smell; 2. sharp, biting, caustic: Officer candidates are expected to accept pungent criticisms without question or retaliation. Also: pungency. [punctim - with the point; by stabbing; punctum, puncti, n. - a prick; a small hole; a point] 

poignant - intensely affecting the emotions or the mind: Who can forget the poignant scene in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in which Huck, choosing Jim’s freedom over conventional morality, says, “All right, then, I’ll go to hell”? Also: poignancy. [cf. pungent] 

puto, putare, putavi, putatus - to think

depute - 1) to give authority to someone as a deputy or a substitute; 2) to assign (authority, a task, etc.): The United States Constitution deputes to the Vice-President the powers of the President in the event that the latter becomes unable to discharge his duties. Also: deputable, deputation (a deputing; a person or persons deputed). [deputo, deputare, deputavi, deputatus - to prune; to estimate, consider] 

disrepute - disgrace; discredit: Claiming that the article has no foundation in fact and has brought her into disrepute, the actress is suing the magazine for libel. Also: disreputable (having a bad reputation; not respectable; discreditable; dishonorable), disreputability, disreputableness. [reputo, reputare, reputavi, reputatus - to calculate; to ponder; to reconsider] 

impute - to attribute; ascribe (usually faults, weaknesses, etc.): The chief of the failed mission imputed the disaster to the inattentiveness of a single mechanic. Also: imputable, imputation (an imputing or being imputed), imputative (imputed; that imputes), imputativeness, imputer. [imputo, imputare, imputavi, imputatus - to attribute, ascribe] 

putative - generally considered such; reputed: The putative reason for his departure was dissatisfaction with company policies. 

repute - (n.) reputation; (v.) to suppose to be: She is reputed to be the brightest person in her class. Also: reputable (having a good reputation), reputed (adj., supposed). [reputo, cf. disrepute] 

Moutoux, Latin Derivatives 

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