Latin Derivatives
- F -

 

fabula, fabulae, f. - story

confabulate - to talk together informally; chat: Friends are comfortable with each other, whether they are confabulating or saying nothing at all. Also: confabulation, confabulator, confabulatory. [fabulor, fabulari, fabulatus - to converse, chatter] 

fable - a story, frequently involving animals, whose purpose is to impart a moral lesson: The most famous fables are those of Aesop, but many other authors have written fables, too, including LaFontaine, Lessing, and George Orwell. Also: fabular (of or pertaining to a fable), fabulist (one who writes or tells fables; a liar), fabled (legendary), fabulous, fabulousness. 

facies, faciei, f. - shape, form; face

efface - 1) to rub out; to wipe out; to erase; 2) to keep from being noticed: The new director had already established a pattern of ostensibly self-effacing comments, the intended effect of which was to bolster his own reputation. Also: effaceable, effacement, effacer. 

facade - 1) the front of a building; 2) the front (exposed) part of anything, often used figuratively for a device used to conceal the truth: The candidate's confidence was considered by most political analysts to be a facade. 

facet - 1) any plane surface of a cut gem; 2) side; aspect: When proposed legislation has more facets than the general public can be expected to deal with adequately, referendums are inappropriate. 

superficial - 1) on the surface; 2) not profound; shallow; 3) cursory; not thorough: It would be imprudent, they agreed, to base their conclusions on superficial evidence alone. Also: superficiality, superficialness. [superficies, superficiei, f. - surface] 

facilis, facile - easy

facilitate - to make easy: On-line computer networks facilitate learning by bringing a world of information to the  computer screen. Also: facilitation (the act of facilitating), facilitative, facilitator. [facilitas, facilitatis, f. - ease] 

facility - 1) ease of doing; 2) dexterity; fluency: Our European friend speaks five languages with facility and enthusiasm. Also: facile (easy; done easily; moving or acting with ease), facileness. 

facio, facere, feci, factus - to make; do

affectation - pretense; artificial behavior meant to impress others: Among people for whom appearance means more than reality, affectation and hypocrisy abound. Also: affected (assumed for effect; behaving in an artificial manner to impress others). [afficio, afficere, affeci, affectus - to affect, afflict with; affectio, affectionis, f. - relation; condition] 

artifice - 1) trickery: If carbon-14 tests done on the Shroud of Turin are accurate, the cloth is of medieval origin, and its famous image must be the result of artifice. 2) a trick; 3) skill. Also: artificer (craftsman; inventor), artificial, artificiality, artificialness. [artifex, artificis, m. - skilled worker, craftsman] 

coefficient - 1) in mathematics, a number or symbol placed before another as a multiplier (in the expression 2x, 2 is the coefficient of x): In predicting the effects of rainfall on a particular region, one takes into account the coefficient of run-off, which is the ratio between the rainfall and the run-off of the region. 2) a cooperating cause. 

confectionery - 1) candy and other sweets: The class project was to canvass stores in all parts of town to try to determine for which feast (Christmas, Easter, or Halloween) the most confectionery is sold. 2) a candy store; 3) the business of making and selling sweets. Also: confection (candy and sweets; the act or process of making candy and sweets), confectioner. [conficio, conficere, confeci, confectus - to accomplish, finish; confectio, confectionis, f. - a producing,
completing] 

disaffection - disloyalty; discontent; unfriendliness: A sharp reduction in pay has resulted in widespread disaffection among the workers. Also: disaffect (to make disloyal, discontent, or unfriendly) [adfectio, adfectionis, f. - relation; state] 

edifice - a large, imposing building: Of the magnificent edifices that adorned ancient Greece and Rome, only a few remain. Also: edificial. [aedificium, aedifici, n. - building] 

edify - to instruct by word or example so as to improve morally and spiritually: Parents should strive always to edify their children, not to scandalize them. Also: edification, edificatory (edifying), edifier. [aedifico, aedificare, aedificavi, aedificatus - to build; aedificatio, aedificationis, f. - act or process of building; building] 

effect - (v.) to cause, bring about: A successful diplomat must be skilled in effecting compromises. [efficio, efficere, effeci, effectus - to make (out), bring about; effectus, effectus, m. - an effecting; effect] 

effectual - 1) producing the desired effect; effective; 2) capable of producing the desired effect: The proposed changes were seen as effectual measures to reduce tardiness. 3) valid. Also: ineffectual. [effectus, cf. effect] 

efficacy - power to produce the desired effect: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) must rule positively on the safety and efficacy of new drugs before they can be marketed. Also: efficacious, efficaciousness, efficacity (efficacy). [efficax, efficacis - effectual, efficacious; efficacitas, efficacitatis, f. - efficiency] 

faction - 1) a group within a party or organization that, in seeking to further its own goals, works against the goals of other groups or of the party or organization as a whole: The principal admonished the faculty about the divisiveness of factions; he asked that everyone "take hold of the same rope and pull in the same direction." 2) dissention within an organization. Also: factional, factionalism (condition characterized by factional differences), factionalist (one who stirs up dissention), factionalization, factionalize (to break into factions). [factio, factionis, f. - a making, doing; factum, facti, n. - deed] 

factious - tending to cause dissention: The conservative senators have been known to call their liberal colleagues factious, and the liberals have seldom lost an opportunity to reciprocate; of course, it is possible that both sides are right. Also: factiousness. [factiosus, factiosa, factiosum - partisan, factious] 

factitious - not natural or spontaneous, but artificial or forced: At pep assemblies, when the ardent pleas of cheerleaders encounter the apathy of the students, the result is factitious enthusiasm. Also: factitiousness. [facticius, facticia, facticium - artificial] 

factotum - a person employed to do all sorts of work; a handyman: Since he has neither the time nor the skills to do routine maintenance work on his rental houses, he has hired a fulltime factotum. 

liquefaction - the process of changing into a liquid, said especially of gases: Liquefaction condenses gases and makes them more portable. LP-gas (liquefied petroleum gases) is used in rural areas for cooking and heating. Also: liquefacient (something that liquifies), liquefactive, liquefiable, liquefy (make or become liquid). [liquidus, -a, -um - flowing, liquid; liquefacio, liquefacere, liquefeci, liquefactus - to make liquid, melt, dissolve; liquefio, liquefieri, liquefactus - to become liquid, melt, dissolve] 

olfactory - having to do with the sense of smell: Depending on the odor, she thought of her sensitive olfactory nerves as a blessing or a curse. [oleo, -ere, -ui - to smell of; olfacio, olfacere, olfeci, olfactus - to smell] 

prefect - 1) the title of various civil and military officers in ancient Rome; 2) in some schools, a senior student who has some authority over other students: A mediocre student for three years, he was appointed dorm prefect in his senior year, much to the amazement of his friends. Also: prefectorial (of or pertaining to a prefect), prefectural, prefecture (the office, territory, etc. of a prefect). [praeficio, praeficere. praefeci, praefectus - to appoint as overseer; praefectura, praefecturae, f. - office of overseer] 

putrefaction - a rotting, decomposing; decay: Animal putrefaction progresses faster in the summer than in the winter.  Also: putrefacient (something that putrefies), putrefactive (caused by or having to do with putrefaction), putrefy. [putrefacio, putrefacere, putrefeci, putrefactus - to make rotten] 

ratification - approval; confirmation: Ratification by three-fourths of the states is required for new amendments to the United States Constitution. Also: ratificationist, ratifier, ratify. 

sanctification - the act or process of making holy; consecration; purification: Many Protestants believe that faith, not good works, brings about man's sanctification. Also: sanctifiable, sanctifiableness, sanctifier, sanctify. [sanctus, sancta, sanctum - holy, sacred; sanctitas, sanctitatis, f. - sacredness; purity] 

stupefaction - dazed condition; overwhelming amazement; utter bewilderment: Having ruled out drugs, the psychiatrist probed elsewhere for the cause of the recurrent stupefaction. Also: stupefacient (a drug that produces stupor; producing stupor), stupefactive, stupefiedness, stupefier, stupefy (to put into a stupor), stupor (state of greatly diminished sensibility). [stupefacio, stupefacere, stupefeci, stupefactus - to make senseless, stun; stupeo, stupere, stupui - to be struck senseless, be stunned] 

surfeit - (n.) excess: Many Americans suffer from a surfeit of material goods and a dearth of human kindness. (trans. v.) to force on someone to the point of nausea; (intrans. v.) to eat or drink to excess. Also: surfeiter.

facultas, facultatis, f. - capability, possibility, means

facultative - 1) granting permission to do or not do something: Many teachers become frustrated when facultative responses require a significant portion of class time. 2) optional; 3) that may or may not happen. Also: faculty (ability, capability). [facilis, facile - easy]

fallo, fallere, fefelli, falsus - to deceive

fallacious - 1) erroneous; logically unsound; 2) misleading or deceptive: Quacks of all kinds use unreliable data and fallacious reasoning to convince credulous listeners. Also: fallaciousness. [fallax, fallacis - false, deceitful] 

fallacy - 1) mistaken idea: Before Copernicus, almost everyone subscribed to the fallacy that the sun goes around the earth. 2) error in reasoning. [fallacia, fallaciae, f. - deceit, fraud] 

fallible - 1) liable to err: No one knows everyone; yet no one seriously doubts that everyone is fallible. 2) liable to be false. Also: fallibility, fallibleness, infallible, infallibility, infallibleness. 

fama, famae, f. - report; rumor; reputation

defamation - injury to the reputation of another by means of false, malicious statements: The loudmouthed, unscrupulous liar was finally sued successfully for defamation of character. Also: defamatory (defaming), defame (to injure by defamation), defamer. 

infamous - deserving of, causing, or having a very bad reputation: Time seems to whitewash the infamous deeds of certain criminals, covering infamy with a sense of wonder. Think of Billy the Kid, Jesse James, and Al Capone, for example. Also: infamousness, infamy. [famosus, famosa, famosum - famous; infamia, infamiae, f. - ill repute, dishonor, disgrace; infamis, infame - notorious] 

fanaticus, fanartica, fanaticum - enthusiastic, inspired

fanaticism - excessive enthusiasm, zealotry: Fanaticism can become violent; the result is such things as unjust wars, witch burnings, and mass suicides. Also: fanatic (someone whose enthusiasm exceeds what is reasonable), fanatical, fanaticize (to make a fanatic of; to act fanatically) 

fastidium, fastidi, n. - loathing, disgust

fastidious - not easy to please, demanding, very critical, easily disgusted: Everyone in the office wishes that the new employee were as fastidious in her work as she is in her attire. Also: fastidiousness. [fastidiosus, fastidiosa, fastidiosum - full of disgust, disdainful] 

fastus, fastus, m. - arrogance

fastuous - arrogant, ostentatious: His eye was always drawn to the oversized, fastuous columns on either side of the front door. Also: fastuousness.

fatuus, fatua, fatuum - foolish, silly

fatuity - complacent foolishness: The line between optimism and fatuity can be difficult to discern. Also: fatuitous (complacently foolish), fatuitousness, fatuous (fatuitous), fatuousness. [fatuitas, fatuitatis, f. - foolishness, silliness]

felix, felicis - productive; auspicious, favorable; lucky, fortunate

felicific - making or tending to make happy: For them, the remote beach, with its beauty and tranquility, was the most felicific place on earth.

felicitous - done or expressed appropriately; appropriate; suitable to the occasion: Having thanked the speaker for his felicitous words, the principal asked the graduates to rise and come forward to receive their diplomas. Also: felicitousness, infelicitous (inappropriate; unhappy). [felicitas, felicitatis, f. - happiness] 

felicity - 1) happiness: She wondered why her father always talked about the felicity of childhood and never said anything about the joys of adult life. 2) good fortune; 3) the ability to express oneself appropriately. Also: felicitate (to congratulate), felicitation (expression of good wishes), felicitator, infelicity (unhappiness, misfortune; inappropriateness) [felicitas, cf. felicitous] 

infelicitous - inapt; inappropriate: Think before you speak; an infelicitous remark can have disastrous consequences. Also: infelicity (unhappiness). [infelicitas, infelicitatis, f. - misfortune; infelix, infelicis - unfruitful; unfortunate]

fenestra, -ae, f. - window

defenestration - the act of throwing out through a window: The Thirty Years War began when Protestant rebels in Bohemia threw two representatives of the Catholic Emperor out of a window. This act is known as the Defenestration of Prague. Also: fenestrated (having windows), and fenestration (the arrangement of windows in a building). [de (prep. w/ abl.) - from, down from; about]

fero, ferre, tuli, latus - to bear, carry; bring

defer - (trans.) to put off, postpone; (intrans.) to yield respectfully to the judgment or wish of another: It was the CEO's prerogative to explain the reasons for the impending merger, but he deferred to the company's founder. 2. to put off until later. Also: deference (a yielding to the opinion or wish of another), deferent (showing deference), deferential (deferent), deferment (postponement), deferrable or deferrable, deferrer. [defero, deferre, detuli, delatus - to bring down; to carry away; to hand over; to report]

elate - to make very joyful or proud: The announcement of their daughter’s induction into the National Honor Society elated them. Also: elatedness, elation. [effero, eferre, extuli, elatus - to carry out, take away]

proffer - to offer for acceptance: Committee members fidgeted and doodled while the consultant proffered a lengthy plan for boosting federal support. Also: profferer. [offero, offerre, obtuli, oblatus - to present, offer]

referendum - the referring of a measure proposed or passed by the legislature to the vote of the citizens for approval or rejection: Much legislation is too complex to be determined by referendum. [refero, referre, rettuli, relatus - to carry back; to restore; to repeat; to answer; to deliver]

ferrum, ferri, n. - iron

ferrous - of or containing iron: Soil with high-ferrous, high-aluminum content is typically found in rain forests, where high leaching has occurred. Also: ferric (of or containing iron), ferriferous (producing iron), ferro- (prefix corresponding to ferrous), ferruginous (iron-bearing). [ferramenta, ferramentorum, n. - tools made of iron; ferrarius, ferraria, ferrarium - of iron; ferratus, ferrata, ferratum - furnished with iron; ferreus, ferrea, ferreum - of iron; ferrugineus, ferruginea, ferrugineum - of an iron-gray color; ferrugo, ferruginis, f. - iron rust; dark red]

fervor, fervoris, m. - a boiling heat, foaming

effervescent - 1) bubbling; 2) exuberant, vivacious, lively: "It's okay to be in a bad mood," he said. "I don't think I could stand it if you were effervescent all the time." Also: effervescence. [effervesco, effervescere, efferbui - to boil up, foam up. boil over] 

fervor - great warmth of feeling: Hearty handshakes and hugs made her fervor seem tangible and enhanced the appeal of her cause. Also: fervency (fervor), fervent (showing great warmth of feeling, ferventness, fervid (fervent), fervidity, fervidness. [ferveo, fervere - to be boiling hot; fervidus, fervida, fervidum - glowing, burning, fiery, hot] 

festino, festinare, festinavi, festinatus - to hurry, hasten

festinate - (v.) to hurry, hasten, rush: You can’t become a millionaire delivering newspapers; it won’t help to fuss, finagle, or festinate. (adj.) hurried. Also: festination. [festinatio, festinationis, f. - haste, hurry, speed; festinus, festina, festinum - hasty, speedy]

fidelis, fidele - faithful, loyal

fidelity - 1) faithfulness; loyalty: From the president on down, everyone at the company praised the beloved retiree for her industriousness and fidelity. 2) exactness; accuracy of a description, translation, or reproduction. Also: infidelity. [fidelitas, fidelitatis, f. - faithfulness] 

infidel - 1) a person who does not accept a particular religion: The purpose of the Crusades was to rescue the Holy Land from the Moslem infidels. 2) one who has no faith; an unbeliever. Also: infidelic (of or pertaining to infidels). [infidelis, infidele - disloyal] 

fiducia, fiduciae, f. - trust, confidence

fiduciary - (n.) a person to whom property or power is entrusted for the benefit of another: A fiduciary is required to disregard personal benefit and to act exclusively in the best interest of the person represented. (adj.) pertaining to the relation between a fiduciary and his principal. Also: fiducial (in astronomy, of a line or point assumed as a fixed basis of reference; based on trust). [fido, fidere, fisus sum - to trust, rely upon; fiduciarius, fiduciaria, fiduciarium - entrusted; fidus, fida, fidum - faithful]

fides, fidei, f. - faith, trust, confidence

bona fide - genuine, authentic, true; without fraud or deception: My cousin is convinced that the violin he purchased at an auction for $350 is a bona fide Stradivarius, worth perhaps a cool hundred thousand. 

diffident - lacking confidence in oneself; shy: Diffident in the classroom and in most social situations, Amy came alive on the soccer field, where she played with enthusiasm, aggressiveness, and skill. Also: diffidence. [fido, fidere, fisus sum - to believe, trust, confide; diffidentia, diffidentiae, f. - lack of confidence; diffido, diffidere, diffisus sum - to have no confidence] 

figo, figere, fixi, fixus - fasten, attach, make firm

affix - (v.) 1) to attach, fasten: Having spotted the postal delivery vehicle in the next cul-de-sac, she sealed the letter, affixed a stamp, and headed for the mailbox. 2) to add on, append. (n.) 1) something that is attached or fastened; 2) a prefix or a suffix. Also: affixable, affixal, affixation (the act of affixing; the adding of a prefix or a suffix) affixial, affixer, affixment, affixture (the act of affixing).

fixate - 1) to make stable or stationary; 2) to become fixed : The eyes of the actor fixated on a brunette ironing costumes on the other side of the room; it was the beginning of a loving relationship that lasted a lifetime. Also: fixation, fixative (serving to make fixed or permanent).

filia, filiae, f. - daughter
filius, fili, m. - son

affiliate - v. 1) to connect in close association; 2) to join: Our company has affiliated itself with a former rival; now business is better than ever. n. branch organization; subsidiary. Also: affiliable, affiliation (an affiliating or being affiliated), affiliative. 

filial - 1) of or pertaining to a son or daughter; 2) becoming of a child in relation to his/her parents: Genuine devotion to one's parents makes the performance of filial duties seem easy. Also: filialness, filiate (to determine the paternity of a child), filiation (being the child of a certain parent; determining the paternity of a child). 

fingo, fingere, finxi, fictus - to shape; imagine; devise, invent, fabricate

feign - 1) to make a false show of: The visiting teacher admonished us never to feign sickness to avoid academic or occupational responsibilities; according to her, malingering is harmful to oneself and to others. 2) to invent fictitiously, make up. 

finis, finis, finium, m. - end; pl.: borders, territory

affinity - 1) a natural attraction or liking: He chose to study geology, a discipline in which he would be able to take advantage of his affinity for nature and wilderness. 2) close relationship; 3) similarity of structure; resemblance. Also: affinitive (having affinity; closely related), affinal (related by marriage), affine (a person related by marriage). [affinis, affine - neighboring, adjoining; affinitas, affinitatis, f. - relationship by marriage] 

finality - the quality, condition, or fact of being final: This time her voice had an undertone of finality; she would make no additional concessions, and we knew it. 

finite - 1) having definable or measurable limits or bounds; not infinite: Any finite number, say one that has digits that would reach from the earth to the sun and back, is infinitely less than infinity, isn’t it? 2) said of verbs that are restricted by person, number, and tense; not an infinitive or participle. Also: finiteness, finitude (the condition of being finite), infinite, infiniteness, infinitize (to free from the limits of time and space), infinitude, infinity. [finio, finire, finivi, finitus - to bound, limit, enclose; infinitus, infinita, infinitum - unlimited, unbounded, infinite; infinitas, infinitatis, f. - infinity, boundlessness] 

infinitesimal - extremely small: Some poisons are so virulent that an infinitesimal amount can be fatal to a human being. Also: infinitesimality, infinitesimalness. 

infinitive - a verb form having no person and number and commonly preceded by "to": There are times when logic seems to require a split infinitive, i.e., an infinitive whose two parts (the word “to” and the verb) are separated by another word. [finio, cf. finite] 

firmus, firma, firmum - strong, firm

affirm - 1) to declare to be true; 2) to confirm; to ratify: To a man, the striking players affirmed their willingness to cancel the entire season rather than accede to the owners' requests. Also: affirmable, affirmance (affirmation), affirmant (one who affirms), affirmation, affirmative, affirmer. [adfirmo, adfirmare, adfirmavi, adfirmatus - to strengthen; to support, confirm] 

infirmity - the quality or state of being weak or feeble; weakness; feebleness: It's one thing to acknowledge our infirmities and quite another to try to reduce or eliminate them. Also: infirm (feeble; weak); infirmarian (one who cares for the sick), infirmary (a building or room where the sick are cared for), infirmness. [infirmitas, infirmitatis, f. - weakness, infirmity; infirmo, infirmare, infirmavi, infirmatus - weaken; infirmus, infirma, infirmum - weak, infirm] 

flagello, flagellare - to whip, scourge

flagellation - the act of whipping: In The Scarlet Letter, the Reverend Mr. Dimmesdale resorts to self-flagellation to try to atone for his secret sin with Hester. Also: flagellant (n., someone who whips himself for religious purposes or who derives sexual pleasure from whipping another or from being whipped; adj., whipping), flagellator, flagellatory. [flagellum, flagelli, n. - a whip; flagrum, flagri, n. - a whip] 

flagro, flagrare, flagravi. flagraturus - to blaze, burn, flame

flagrant - glaringly outrageous, shockingly evident: The flagrant misuse of donations for personal aggrandizement dampened the enthusiasm of even the most credulous followers. Also: flagrance, flagrancy (flagrance), flagrantness (flagrance). [flagrantia, flagrantiae, f. - a blazing, burning] 

flos, floris, m. - flower, blossom

florid - 1) reddish, ruddy, highly colored; 2) flowery, showy, highly or excessively ornate: The florid tapestries which once adorned the walls of the concert hall served as a visual complement to the baroque music of the times. Also: floridity, floridness. [floridus, florida, floridum - flowering, blooming; of flowers; rich in flowers] 

flumen, fluminis, n. - river

flume - an inclined chute for carrying water downhill: Although the students had all ridden the "Flume Zoom" at Opryland, none of them realized that flumes are used by logging companies to transport logs down mountains.

fluo, fluere, fluxi, fluxus - to flow

circumfluent - flowing around; surrounding: Looking around he saw no one, neither on the island nor in the circumfluent waters of the Pacific. Also: circumfluous - 1) circumfluent; 2) surrounded by water. [circum (prep. w/ acc.) - around; circumfluo, circumfluere, circumfluxi, circumfluxus - to flow around; circumfluus, circumflua, circumfluum - flowing around] 

flux - 1) flow; 2) continuous change: When everything in a society appears to be in a state of flux, anxiety medication flourishes. Also: fluxion (a flowing, flow), fluxional, fluxionary. [fluctus, fluctus, m. - a flowing, streaming; fluentum, fluenti, n. - running water; stream; fluidus, fluida, fluidum - flowing; fluito, fluitare, fluitavi - to flow; to float; to undulate; to waver]

foetidus, foetida, foetidum - stinking

fetid - stinking: The largest flower in the world is the Amorphophallus Titanum, the huge Corpse Flower of Sumatra. Because of its fetid odor, it is also known as the Devil's Tongue. Also: fetidity, fetidness (fetidity). [fetor, fetoris, m. - a bad smell] 

folium, foli, n. - leaf

defoliate - to strip of leaves: Agent Orange, used by the American military to defoliate forests and destroy crops in Vietnam, has been blamed for skin diseases, cancers, miscarriages, and birth defects.

exfoliate - 1) (tr.) to throw off or remove (the surface) in scales, flakes, or splinters; 2) (intr.) to throw off scales, flakes, or small fragments: The bark of some trees, for example, the maple, the beech, and the dogwood, may not exfoliate during the first several years of the life of the tree. Also: exfoliative, exfoliation.

forma, formae, f. - shape, form

cuneiform - 1) wedge-shaped characters used by the ancient Babylonians; 2) wedge-shaped: Because certain bones resemble wedges, they are called cuneiform. Also: cuneiformist (an expert in cuneiform writing). 

formalism - insistence on outward forms or traditional ceremonies, especially in religion: A liberal if ever there was one, she found the minister's formalism stifling and altogether without appeal. Also: formalist, formalistic. [formalis, formale - formal] 

formulary - a collection of formulas: Conscientious pharmacists check their formulary when in doubt about the preparation of medications. Also: formula, formulable, formulaic (based on or consisting of formulas), formularize (formulate), formularization, formularizer, formulate (to express precisely and systematically), formulation, formulator, formulize (formulate), formulization, formulizer. [formula, formulae, f. - form, rune, formula] 

vermiform - shaped like a worm: With a microscope one can see in a drop of water all sorts of unappetizing microorganisms, some round, some oblong, some vermiform. [vermis, vermis, m. - worm] 

fors, fortis, f. - chance, luck, accident

fortuitous - 1) happening by chance, accidental: He believed his wartime survival to be purely fortuitous, not the result of divine intervention; God must have slept as millions died, he mused. 2) fortunate. Also: fortuitousness, fortuity (fortuitousness; a chance happening). [fortuitus, fortuita, fortuitum - happening by chance, accidental] 

fortis, forte - strong; brave

forte - a personal strength; something one does particularly well: Amber runs all distances well, but her forte is middle-distance running. 

fortitude - bravery: It took fortitude and integrity to approach the neighbors, admit having dented their car, and offer to pay for the damages. Also: fortitudinous (having fortitude). [fortitudo, fortitudinis, f. - strength, courage] 

frango. frangere, fregi, fractus - to break

fracas - a noisy quarrel or fight: To understand is to forgive; misunderstanding has led to many a fracas. 

fractious - 1) unruly; hard to manage: Placed under NATO command, some members of the Kosovo Liberation Army proved to be as fractious as the departing Serbs. 2) peevish, irritable, easily angered. Also: fractiousness. 

frangible - easily broken: They packed the frangible gifts in the carry-on luggage and put the rest in a duffle bag that they checked through to Philadelphia. Also: frangibility, frangibleness. fragile, fragility, fragment, fragmentary (consisting of fragments; incomplete), fragmentariness, fragmentate (fragmentize), fragmentation, fragmented, fragmentize (to break apart), fragmentization, fragmentizer, frangibility, frangibleness. [fragilis, fragile - easily broken; fragilitas, fragilitatis, f. - fragility; fragmen, fragminis, n. - (pl.) fragments; fragmentum, fragmenti, n. - a piece broken off]


infraction - a breaking of a law: Driving infractions can result in large fines, imprisonment, and loss of driver's license. Also: infract (to violate), infractor. [infractio, infractionis, f. - breaking] 

infringe (on, upon) - to trespass, encroach (on the rights of others): The students argued that censorship by teachers and administrators infringed upon their right of free speech. Also: infringement, infringer. [infringo, infringere, infregi, infractus - to break, break off; to weaken] 

refraction - the bending of rays of light or of waves of heat or sound: When light enters water at an oblique angle, refraction occurs. Also: refract (to cause to undergo refraction), refractional, refractive (refracting; having to do with refraction), refractiveness, refractivity, refractor (person or thing that refracts). 

refractory - 1) hard to manage, stubbornly disobedient, fractious: The precocious youngster knew what his mother meant when she said that he was as refractory as a two-year-old. 2) not yielding to medical treatment; 3) resistant to heat; hard to melt. Also: refractoriness. [refractarius, refractaria, refractarium - stubborn, argumentative] 

frater, fratris, m. - brother

fraternal - of or like a brother; brotherly: It is impossible to know to what extent fraternal rivalry motivated pairs of successful brothers such as Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm and John F. and Robert Kennedy. Also: fraternalism (brotherliness), fraternity, fratricidal, fratricide (killing of one's brother). [fraternus, fraterna, fraternum - pertaining to a brother, brotherly, fraternal; fraternitas, fraternitatis, f. - brotherhood; fratricida, fratricidae, m. - one who kills a brother] 

fraternize - to associate as with a brother: The boss maintained that associating with representatives of rival firms was fraternizing with the enemy. Also: fraternization (fraternizing), fraternizer. [fraternus, cf. fraternal] 

fraus, fraudis, f. - deceit, deception, cheating

fraudulent - 1) deceitful, using deceit; 2) characterized by or involving deceit: Too proud to seek the assistance of charitable agencies, the desperate man resorted to the fraudulent use of checks and credit cards. Also: fraud, fraudulence, fraudulency. [fraudatio, fraudationis, f. - deceit, cheating; fraudator, fraudatoris, m. - a deceiver, cheater; fraudo, fraudare, fraudavi, fraudatus - to cheat; fraudulentia, fraudulentiae, f. - deceitfulness]

frigus, frigoris, n. - coldness

frigorific - causing or producing cold: The collision of a large meteorite with the earth would be catastrophically frigorific; many animal and plant species would perish. Also: frigid (very cold), frigidness, frigidity. [frigeo, frigere - be cold; frigero, frigerare - to cool; frigesco, frigescere - become cold; frigidus, frigida, frigidum - cold; cool]

frivolus, frivola, frivolum - trifling, worthless

frivolous - 1) of little worth, trivial; 2) lacking seriousness, not properly serious: Her frivolous answers to serious questions belie an intellect accustomed to pondering philosophical matters. Also: frivol (to spend frivolously; to behave frivolously), frivolity, frivolousness. 

frons, frontis, frontium, f. - forehead; front

affront - (n.) an open insult; an expression of intentional disrespect or contempt: The ambassador's words could be understood only as an affront to the integrity of the vice-president. (v.) to insult openly. Also: affrontedness, affronter, affrontiveness. 

confront - 1) to oppose boldly; 2) to bring face to face (with): Confronted with the massive amount of evidence against him, the suspect agreed to sign a confession. 3) to meet face to face. Also: confrontal, confrontation, confrontational, confrontment, confronter. 

effrontery - unashamed boldness; impudence, barefaced audacity: Caught with shoplifted articles as she left the store, she had the effrontery to demand to see the manager. 

fructus, fructus, m. - enjoyment, delight; proceeds, fruit

fructify - 1. (intr.) to bear fruit; 2. (tr.) to make fruitful or productive: The farmer plows, plants, and cultivates; rain and sunshine fructify his efforts. Also: fructiferous (producing fruit), fructification, fructificative (able to produce fruit), fructifier, fructivorous (feeding on fruits), fructose (a kind of sugar occurring in many fruits), fructuous (producing fruit; productive). [fructuosus, fructuosa, fructuosum - fruitful, productive]

frugalis, frugale - thrifty, frugal

frugal - tending to avoid unnecessary spending; thrifty, not wasteful: Allowing herself few luxuries, saving almost all she can, she thinks of herself as frugal; others consider her parsimonious, even miserly. Also: frugality (tendency to avoid wasteful spending; thrift). [frugalitas, frugalitatis, f. - thriftiness] 

frumentum, frumenti, n. - corn; grain

frumentaceous - having the nature of, made of, or resembling wheat or other grains: For breakfast he enjoyed toast, bagels, English muffins, and other frumentaceous creations. [frumentarius, frumentaria, frumentarium - of corn or grain; frumentatio, frumentationis, f. - foraging; distribution or providing of corn; frumentator, frumentatoris, m. - a provider of corn; forager; frumentor, frumentari, frumentatus - forage, provide corn]

fuga, fugae, f. - flight

fugacious - passing away, transitory: Sooner or later, one becomes aware of the fugacious nature of life; however, awareness and acceptance are two different things. Also: fugacity, fugaciousness. [fugax, fugacis - apt to flee; fleeing; fleeting] 

fugue - a musical composition in which different voices or instruments repeat the same melody contrapuntally and with slight variations: Johann Sebastian Bach, a master of the fugue, left incomplete a work entitled The Art of Fugue, which contains 18 sections, each section more complex than the preceding one and all based on a single line of melody. Also: fugelike. 

fugio, fugere, fugi, fugiturus - to run away, flee

centrifugal - moving or tending to move away from the center: By means of an arced approach to the bar, the high jumper creates centrifugal force which, when released, provides the horizontal component of the jump. Also: centrifugalize, centrifugalization, centrifugate (the denser of the centrifuged substances), centrifugation, centrifuge (n., apparatus that by means of high-speed rotation causes substances of different densities to separate; v., to separate by means of a centrifuge). [centrum, centri, n. - center] 

fugitive - a person who flees from danger, justice, etc.: The three fugitives who still remain at large are believed to  be surrounded by some 200 policemen. Also: fugitiveness, fugitivity. [fugitivus, fugitiva, fugitivum - fleeing, fugitive] 

refuge - shelter from danger; place of safety: Hundreds of thousands of people, fearing for their lives, fled from Rwanda and sought refuge in neighboring Zaire. Also: refugium (area where a species has been enabled to survive that has become extinct in the surrounding areas). [refugio, refugere, refugi, refugiturus - to run away; refugus, refuga, refugum - fleeing back] 

refugee - a person who flees from his/her home or country because of persecution, war, famine, etc.: Americans were not in agreement about what to do with the Haitian refugees. [refugio, cf. refuge] 

subterfuge - an action or device used to conceal one's true objective: If subterfuge is a form of dishonesty, is there such a thing as an honest spy? [subterfugio, subterfugere, subterfugi, supterfugiturus - to evade, escape, shun] 

fulgeo, fulgere, fulsi - to flash; to glitter, gleam, shine

refulgence - radiance, brightness: When Judy Garland as Dorothy, in her black-and-white house which had been carried by the wind from black-and-white Kansas, opens the door to the Land of Oz, movie audiences of 1939 must have gasped audibly at the Kodacolor refulgence of Munchkinland. Also: fulgent (shining brightly), fulgentness, refulgency (refulgence), refulgent (shining, gleaming, radiant), refulgentness. [fulgor, fulgoris, n. - lightning; brightness, splendor; refulgeo, refulgere, refulsi - to flash back; to glitter, gleam]

fulmen, fulminis, n. - lightning; thunderbolt

fulminate - 1) to utter or publish denunciations, condemnations, censures, or the like: Some political candidates spend more time and money fulminating against their opponents than explaining their own ideas. 2) to explode violently. Also: fulminant (fulminating), fulmination, fulminator, fulminatory. [fulmineus, fulminea, fulmineum - of lightning; fulmino, fulminare - to lightning]

fundo, fundere, fudi, fusus - to pour; to shed

confound - to confuse, puzzle, disconcert: The manager’s decision to start a left-handed pitcher against a team whose starting lineup included eight right-handed batters confounded sportswriters and fans alike. Also: confoundedness, confounder, confusable, confusability, confuse, confusedness, confusion, confusional. [confundo, confundere, confudi, confusus - to pour together, mix; confusio, confusionis, f. - a mixing; fusio, fusionis. f. - an outpouring]

diffuse - to spread out or scatter widely: Like the seeds of dandelions, the prejudices of a vocal few had been diffused throughout the small town. Also: diffuseness, diffuser, diffusibility, diffusible, diffusibleness, diffusion, diffusional, diffusionism (the theory that diffusion is the principal force behind cultural change), diffusionist (one who believes the theory of cultural diffusion), diffusive, diffusiveness, diffusivity. [diffundo, diffundere, diffudi, diffusus - to pour out; to spread; fusio, fusionis. f. - an outpouring]

funus, funeris, n. - funeral, funeral rites, burial

funereal - 1) of or pertaining to a funeral; 2) mournful, gloomy: At their wedding reception, there were no flowers, no meal, and no dancing; the austerity struck many guests as funereal. Also: funeral, funeralize (to hold a funeral service for), funerary (of or pertaining to a funeral). [funereus, funerea, funereum - of a funeral]

fur, furis, m. - thief

furtive - stealthy, sneaky, surreptitious: The detective did not fail to notice the suspect's furtive glance at his hands when the focus of the interrogation shifted to the blood found on the victim. Also: furtiveness. [furtivus, furtiva, furtivum - stolen; hidden] 

fusco, fuscare, fuscavi, fuscatus - to darken, blacken

obfuscate - to confuse, make unclear; to darken. “You have certainly managed to confuse me,” said the disgruntled moderator, “and I fear that further discussion will only serve to obfuscate the matter even more.” Also: obfuscation, obfuscatory. 

Moutoux, Latin Derivatives 

Return to Latin Derivatives, page 1