Latin Derivatives
- D -

debeo, debere, debui, debitus - to owe; ought

debit - the entry showing something owed in an account: Despite an accounting course taken in her freshman year of college, she had trouble keeping her debits separate from her credits. 

debilis, debile - weak, powerless

debilitate - to make weak, enfeeble: Multiple sclerosis may last for years; it gradually debilitates its victims. Also: debilitation, debilitative (causing debilitation), debility. [debilitas, debilitatis, f. - weakness; debilitatio, debilitationis, f. - a weakening; debilito, debilitare, debilitavi, debilitatus - to disable, weaken] 

decimus, -a, -um - tenth

decimate - to destroy a large part of (originally, to kill every tenth one): The Civil War decimated the male population of both the North and the South. Also: decimation, decimator. 

declivis, declive - sloping, inclining downwards

declivity - a hill sloping downward: The precipitous drop in stock values is not passed off as a minor declivity, even by the most optimistic analysts. Also: declivitous, declivous. [declivitas, declivitatis, f. - slope]

decorus, decora, decorum - fitting, proper, suitable

decorous - characterized by proper behavior; in good taste: Proponents of school dress codes argue that decorous attire promotes studiousness. Also: decor (style or manner of decoration), decorate, decoration, decorative, decorativeness, decorator, decorum (proper behavior, speech, and dress), decorousness. [decor, decoris, m. - elegance, grace; decoro, decorare, decoravi, decoratus - to decorate] 

deduco, deducere, deduxi, deductus - to draw down, lead away

deduce - 1) to conclude by logical reasoning from something known: Scholastic philosophers used major and minor premises to deduce such things as the existence of God and the immortality of the soul. 2) to trace the origin or course of. Also: deducible, deducibility, deducibleness, deduction, deductive. [deductio, deductionis, f. - a drawing down, a leading away; duco, ducere, duxi, ductus - to lead]

defero, deferre, detuli, delatus - to carry away, carry down, remove

defer - 1. to yield respectfully to the opinion of another: In most matters, boys and girls ought to defer to the judgment of their parents and teachers. 2. to put off until later. Also: deference (a respectful yielding to the opinion of another), deferential (yielding respectfully to the opinion of another). [fero, ferre, tuli, latus - to carry, bring] 

deference - 1) a respectful yielding to the opinion or judgment of another: Junior members of the firm are advised to steer a cautious course between proper deference and the promotion of one’s own ideas. 2) great respect. Also: defer, deferent (showing deference), deferential (deferent). [fero, ferre, tuli, latus - to bear, carry]

defungor, defungi, defunctus sum - to perform, finish, have done with

defunct - no longer in effect or in existence; dead: Many an antiquated law, though never officially repealed or rescinded, is in fact defunct, having succumbed to universal disregard. Also: defunctness, defunctive (pertaining to the dead). [fungor, fungi, functus - to busy oneself, perform, administer]

delecto, delectare, delectavi, delectatus - to please

delectable - delightful: He called her delectable, even divine, and racked his brain for a still more laudatory epithet. Also: delectability (the quality of being delectable), delectableness, delectate (to delight), delectation (delight). [delectabilis, delectabile - delightful; delectatio, delectationis, f. - delight, pleasure] 

delinquo, delinquere, deliqui, delictus - to fail (in duty)

delinquent - 1) failing to do what is required by law or duty: When a divorced father becomes delinquent in the payment of child support, he is called a "deadbeat dad." 2) overdue. Also: delict (transgression, offense, misdemeanor), delinquency. [delictum, delicti, n. - a fault, crime]

demonstro, demonstrare, demonstravi, demonstratus - to show, point out

demonstrable - able to be shown or proved: The complicity of foreign governments in this affair, although widely suspected, is not readily demonstrable. Also: demonstrability demonstrableness. 

demonstrative - 1) showing clearly; 2) characterized by the clear and energetic expression of feelings: Her demonstrative manner of greeting friends contrasted starkly with her husband's reserve. Also: demonstrant (demonstrator), demonstrate, demonstrational, demonstrationist, demonstrativeness. [demonstrativus, demonstrativa, demonstrativum - demonstrative] 

depleo, deplere, deplevi, depletus - to empty out

depletion - an exhausting or a serious diminishing of the supply of:: Environmentalists bemoan the depletion of certain natural resources, like oil and gas, and the pollution of others, like air and water. Also: deplete, depletable, depletive, depletory.

deploro, deplorare, deploravi, deploratus - to weep bitterly

deplore - to regret deeply (because of disapproval): Some people deplore the business of university sports, which encourages the exploitation of athletes and allows football and basketball coaches to earn more money than the highest-paid professors and academic administrators. Also: deplorable, deplorableness, deplorability, deploration, deplorer. [ploro, plorare, ploravi, ploratus - to cry our, weep aloud; de (prep. w/ abl.) - from, down from; about]

descendo, descendere, descendi, descensus - to climb down, descend

condescending - giving the impression that one is descending voluntarily, in dealing with others, from a higher position or dignity: Condescending people are unwilling or unable to interact with subordinates without drawing attention, at least implicitly, to the difference in their positions. Also: condescend (to behave in a condescending manner), condescender, condescendent, condescendence, condescension, condescensive.

desidero, desiderare, desideravi, desideratus - to wish for, long for, desire

desiderate - to wish for, long for: Now that he had retired and finally had ample free time, something long desiderated but long repressed came knocking unhindered at the door of his mind: he would raise tropical fish. Also: desideration, desiderative, desideratum (something longed for), desiderium (an ardent longing). [desiderium, desideri, n. - an ardent longing]

desilio, desilire, desilui, desultus - to jumpdown; to dismount

desultory - 1) disconnected; jumping from one thing to another A desultory approach to learning may be well served by the Internet, where one can leap from one topic to another with the click of a mouse. 2) random. Also: desultoriness. [desultor, desultoris, m. - a jumper; a circus rider who jumps from horse to horse]

desisto, desistere, destiti, destitus - cease

desist - to cease, stop: Peaceful demonstrations are fine, but when demonstrators endanger the public or destroy or seriously damage public property, the police have every right to force them to desist.

desolo, desolare, desolavi, desolatus - to leave alone, abandon, forsake

desolate - (adj.) 1) barren, devastated: Over the course of many millennia, alternating glaciation and thaw caused verdant areas have become desolate, and desolate areas verdant. 2) deserted, not lived in; (v.) 1) to lay waste, devastate; 2) to deprive of inhabitants, depopulate. Also: desolateness, desolater, desolation, desolator. [solus, sola, solum - alone]

despicio, despicere, despexi, despectus - look down on, despise

despicable - deserving to be despised: Stealing is wrong, but stealing from the poor is despicable. Also: despicability, despicableness. 

detrimentum, detrimenti, n. - wear and tear, damage

detriment - loss, disadvantage, or a cause thereof: No man is an island: individual good works are a boon to society, and individual misdeeds are a detriment. Also: detrimental, detrimentality, detrimentalness. [detrimentosus, detrimtentosa, detrimentosum - hurtful; detero. deterere, detrivi, detritus - to wear down, rub away]

deus, dei, m. - god 

dea, deae, f. - goddess

adieu - farewell, good-by: Tearful adieus exchanged, her parents boarded a plane to return home, and she returned to her job in the hospital.

deify - 1) to make a god of; 2) to idolize: The Romans deified their emperors; we deify our athletes. What's the difference? Also: deific (godlike), deification (act of deifying; state of being deified), deifier. 

deism - doctrine that God created the world but takes no part in its functioning: Many well-known 17th and 18th-century Europeans professed deism. Also: deist (believer in deism), deistic, deistical. 

deity - 1) state of being a god; 2) a god or a goddess: Jupiter, Juno, Neptune, and Diana were important Roman deities. Also: deicide (the killing of a god; one who kills a god), deiform (godlike in form). [caedo, caedere, cecidi, caesus - to kill; forma, formae, f. - form, shape] 


dexter, dextra, dextrum - right

dexterous - 1) skilled in the use of the hands or body; adroit; 2) skilled in using the mind; clever: Many jobs are best filled by persons dexterous both physically and mentally. Also: dexterity (adroitness; cleverness), dexterousness, ambidexterous (able to use both hands with equal skill), ambidexterity, ambidextrousness. [dexteritas, dexteritatis, f. - dexterity; ambo, ambae, ambo - both] 

dextral - 1) right (on or toward the right side): Noticing that Jenny was running with a pronounced dextral lean, Coach Holloway called her aside and recommended that she see a podiatrist. 2) right-handed. Also: dextrality (right-handedness). 

dico, dicere, dixi, dictus - to say, tell

dictate - (n) an authoritative command: Shakespeare's words, "This above all, to thine own self be true," can be understood to mean that one should follow the dictates of his/her conscience. (v.) 1) to say or read for another person to write down; 2) to command with authority. Also: dictation, dictational, dictator, dictatorial, dictatorialness, dictatorship. [dicto, dictare, dictavi, dictatus - to dictate; repeat; dictator, dictatoris, m. - dictator] 

diction - 1) style of speaking and writing: Her new book presents the facts accurately and clearly, uses examples judiciously, and exhibits a pleasant diction. 2) enunciation. Also: dictional. [dictio, dictionis, f. - saying, uttering] 

dictum - 1) a formal comment; a pronouncement; 2) a saying; a maxim: According to an old dictum, eating an apple every day will keep you healthy. 

edict - an official proclamation; decree: Every time he opens his mouth he thinks he has issued an edict. Also: edictal (having to do with an edict). [edico, edicere, edixi, edictus - to announce] 

indict - to make a formal accusation of (done by a grand jury): Although he was indicted last month, the case doesn't go to criminal court for two more months. Also: indictable, indictee, indicter, indictment, indictor. [indico, indicere, indixi, indictus - to declare publicly] 

interdict - (v.) to prohibit; (n.) a formal prohibition: King Henry VIII did not allow an ecclesiastical interdict to stand in the way of his marriage to Anne Boleyn. Also: interdiction (an interdicting or being interdicted), interdictor, interdictory. [interdico, interdicere, interdixi, interdictus - to forbid, prohibit; interdictio, interdictionis, f. - prohibition; interdictum, interdicti, n. - prohibition] 

dies, diei, m. - day

diurnal - 1) daily: The Romans believed that the chariot of Apollo carried the sun on its diurnal journey across the sky. 2) happening in the daytime. Also: diurnalness. [diurnus, diurna, diurnum - pertaining to a day; lasting a day] 

meridian - (n.) 1) a circle passing through both the north and south poles and through any other point on the earth's surface; 2) the highest point: Citing example after example of "moral decadence," she argued that western civilization has already passed its meridian. (adj.) 1) of or pertaining to a meridian; 2) highest; greatest. Also: meridional (having to do with the south (especially southern France); of, having to do with, or like a meridian). [meridies, meridiei, m. - noon; south; meridianus, meridiana, meridianum - of midday] 

differo, differre, distuli, dilatus - to scatter, disperse; to carry in different directions

differentiate - 1) to mark so as to distinguish from other such things; 2) to perceive the difference in: Not always through their own fault, some students begin Latin 1 unable to differentiate various parts of speech. Also: Also: differ, difference, different, differentness, differentia (attribute that distinguishes one entity from another), differentiable, differential, differentiator. [differentia, differentiae, f. - difference; fero, ferre, tuli, latus - to bear, carry]

dignus, digna, dignum - worthy

deign - to think fit; to condescend to do something considered below one’s dignity: The popular prince deigned to walk among the common people and to hear their concerns. [dignatio, dignationis, f. - esteem, dignity; dignitas, dignitatis, f. - worth, merit; digno, dignare - to consider worthy; dignor, dignari, dignatus sum - to consider worthy]

disdain - (v.) to look down on, to regard as beneath one's dignity; (n.) the feeling or act of disdaining. Fatuously aloof, she disdained family, coworkers, and acquaintances; not surprisingly, she had no friends. Also: disdainful, disdainfulness. [dignor, dignari, dignatus sum - to consider worthy; to deign] 

dilatio, dilationis, f. - postponement, delay

dilatory - 1) tending to delay; tardy: They were a real-life analogue of Jack Sprat and wife: he, an early arriver, and she, his dilatory mate, arrived everywhere exactly on time. 2) causing delay or intended to cause delay. Also: dilatoriness. [differo, differre, distuli, dilatus - to delay, postpone; dilator, dilatoris, m. - a delayer, a dilatory person]

discrepo, discrepare, discrepui - to be out of harmony, discordant

discrepant - differing, disagreeing, discordant, inharmonious: She was uncomfortable among people with discrepant religious ideas. Also: discrepance, discrepancy. [crepito, crepitare - to rattle, creak; crepitus, crepitus, m. - a rattling, creaking; crepo, crepare, crepui, crepitus - to rattle, creak; discrepantia, discrepantiae, f. - dissimilarily; discrepatio, discrepationis, f. - a disagreement] 

dissimilis, dissimile - unlike, dissimilar

dissimilation - 1) the act of making of becoming unlike; 2) (phonetics) a change in speech sound making it less like a neighboring sound: The opposite of dissimilation is assimilation, the process whereby a sound becomes more like a neighboring sound. Also: dissimilate (to make [a sound] unlike by means of dissimilation), dissimilative, dissimilatory. [dissimilitudo, dissimilitudinis, f. - difference; similis, simile - like, similar]

dissimulo, dissimulare, dissimulavi, dissimulatus - to disguise; to conceal

dissimulate - (trans.) to disguise or conceal under pretense; (intrans.) to conceal one’s true thoughts or motives by some pretense: Everyone who has a need for personal privacy, cares about the feelings of others, or seeks to avoid unnecessary discord must dissimulate occasionally. Also: dissimulation, dissimulative, dissimulator. [dissimulatia, dissimulatiae, f. - a dissembling; dissimulatio, dissimulationis, f. - a dissembling, concealing; dissimulator, dissimulatoris, m. - a dissembler]

dissipo, dissipare, dissipavi, dissipatus - to scatter, disperse

dissipated - indulging excessively in pleasures: Many lower- and middle-class people enjoy reading about the dissipated lifestyles of the rich and famous. Also: dissipate (to scatter; to spend wastefully), dissipatedness, dissipation, dissipative, dissipator. [dissipabilis, dissipabile - dispersible; dissipatio, dissipationis, f. - a dispersing, scattering]

divido, dividere, divisi, divisus - to divide

dividend - company profits shared by stockholders and holders of insurance policies: The chairman announced with visible pride that the company's annual dividends had reached an all-time high. 

devise - to think out; invent: Her assignment was to devise a mechanical means of getting books from the stacks and returning them to the stacks. Also: deviser. 

divisive - causing or tending to produce disagreement, dissention, or disunity: Some Republicans blamed their lack of success in 1992 on a divisive party platform. Also: divisiveness. 

do, dare, dedi, datus - to give

dowry - money, goods, or property that a woman brings to her husband when she marries: These days if a young man were to ask the father of his fiancée for a dowry, the request would probably not be received cordially. Also: dower (a widow’s lifelong share of her deceased husband’s property), dowery (dowry), dowerless (without a dower or dowry). [datio, dationis, f. - a giving; dator, datoris, m. - giver]

doceo, docere, docui, doctus - to teach; to show

docent - 1) a teacher not on the regular faculty: Some high-school teachers are employed as docents at colleges and smaller universities. 2) guide at a museum or gallery. 

docile - easy to discipline; obedient: It is possible to be too docile; in maturing and becoming independent, one sometimes needs to take a stand at variance with that of an authority figure. Also: docility, indocile, indocility. [docilis, docile - teachable, docile] 

doctrine - something taught, usually as beliefs of a religion, political party, government, organization, etc.: No longer able to accept the doctrine of the church of her childhood, the young woman searched earnestly for a replacement. Also: doctrinaire (a person who insists on applying theories without taking into account the practical consequences). [doctrina, doctrinae, f. - instruction, teaching] 

indoctrinate - to instruct with doctrines of a particular religion, government, political party, etc.: One method of espionage is to indoctrinate prisoners of war and then return them to their home countries as spies. Also: indoctrination, indoctrinator. [doctrina, cf. doctrine] 

dogma, dogmatis, n. - a philosophical tenet or doctrine

dogmatic - 1) of or pertaining to the doctrines or prescribed teachings of a religion, political party, or other organization; 2) arrogantly expressing opinions as if they were facts : A dogmatic attitude finds little favor among scholars. Also: dogma (a doctrine or prescribed teaching of a church or other organization), dogmatical, dogmaticalness, dogmatician (a student of dogmatics), dogmatics (dogmatic theology), dogmatism (arrogant, authoritative assertion of opinions as truths), dogmatist, dogmatize (to make dogmatic statements), dogmatization. 

doleo, dolere, dolui, doliturus - suffer pain; grieve

indolence - laziness: Many a talent has been obscured by indolence. Also: indolent. [indolentia, indolentiae, f. - freedom from pain] 

dolor, doloris, m. - pain; sorrow

dolorous - very sorrowful: The dolorous expressions on the faces of the Tiny Tigers had nothing to do with their lopsided loss to the Happy Hippos and everything to do with the announcement that their favorite post-game haunt, the pizza parlor, was closed. Also: doleful (sorrowful), dolor (sorrow, grief), dolorousness. 

dominus, domini, m. - lord, master

dominion - supreme authority: In the 16th century, Spain had dominion over the Philippines, the Netherlands, Portugal, the Canary Islands, Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, most of South America, and parts of North America and Africa. 

domo, domare, domavi, domatus - to tame

indomitable - unable to be overcome or subdued; unconquerable: Among the most desirable human qualities must surely be numbered insatiable curiosity, indefatigable love, and indomitable courage.  Also: indomitability, indomitableness. [domitor, domitoris, m. - tamer; domitrix, domitricis, f. - tamer; domitus, domitus, m. - taming; indomabilis, indomabile - untameable; indomitus, indomita, indomitum - untamed]

domus, domus, f. - house

domestic - having to do with the home or with housekeeping: More and more husbands and wives are sharing domestic chores equitably. 2) having to do with or made in one’s own country; 3) tame. Also: domesticate (to make domestic), domesticable, domestication, domesticity (fondness for home and family life). [domesticus, domestica, domesticum - domestic; belonging to house or family] 

domicile - 1) home; residence; 2) place of permanent residence: They have houses in several states, but they consider the one in Kentucky their domicile.

dono, donare, donavi, donatus - to give as a present; to present

condone - to disregard, thereby giving tacit approval or pardon: By overlooking speeds of ten mph. or more in excess of posted limits on interstate highways, the police condone speeding, don't they? Also: condonable, condonance, condonation, condonement. [condono, condonare, condonavi, condonatus - to give away; condonatio. condonationis, f. a giving away] 

donative - gift, donation: For legal validation of gifts, two things are necessary: the transfer of possession of the donative and evidence of the intent of the donor. Also: donate, donation, donator. [donum, doni, n. - gift]

dormio, dormire, dormivi, dormitus - to sleep

dormant - 1) sleeping or quiet as if asleep; 2) inactive: Apple trees are supposed to be sprayed one time in the late winter, while the trees are still dormant. Also: dormancy (the state of being dormant). 

draco, draconis, m. - dragon

draconic - of or like a dragon: Fans of professional wrestling love a clean-cut champion and love to hate his draconic adversaries.

dubito, dubitare, dubitavi, dubitatus - to doubt; to hesitate

dubious - 1) doubtful (feeling doubt); 2) uncertain; in doubt: Believing the casualty report to have been based on dubious evidence, the general refused to sign it. 3) questionable; arousing doubt. Also: dubiousness, dubitable (doubtful), dubitation (doubt), dubitative (doubting). [dubius, dubia, dubium - doubtful, uncertain] 

dubitation - doubt: Honest cogitation sometimes leads to dubitation. Also: dubiety (doubtfulness, uncertainty), dubiosity (dubiety), dubious (causing doubt; doubtful), dubiousness, dubitable, indubitable. [dubitabilis, dubitabile - doubtful; dubitatio, dubitationis, f. - doubt, uncertainty; hesitancy; dubius, dubia, dubium - wavering, doubtful]

indubitable - unable to be doubted: In offering congratulations, the principal underscored the indubitable efforts of students and teachers alike. Also: indubitability, indubitableness. [dubitabilis, dubitabile - doubtful, uncertain; indubitabilis, indubitabile - not able to be doubted] 

redoubtable - 1) that should be feared; formidable: Their winning record is attributable primarily to a redoubtable defense that has not allowed a touchdown in the last three games. 2) commanding respect. Also: redoubtableness, redoubted (dreaded; respected). 

duco, ducere, duxi, ductus - to lead

abduct - to take someone away unlawfully, by force or fraud; to kidnap: Having abducted the young heiress, they demanded a ransom of ten million dollars. Also: abductee, abduction (an abducting or being abducted), abductor. [abduco, abducere, abduxi, abductus - to lead away, take away; ductor, ductoris, m. - leader] 

adduce - to give as a reason, offer as a proof, or cite as an example: As evidence of reliability, she adduced her exemplary participation in the school's annual food drive. Also: adduceable or adducible, adducer, adduction (an adducing). [adduco, adducere, adduxi, adductus - lead to, influence] 

conducive - helpful; favorable: A student in the back row complained that the noise in the classroom was not conducive to sleep. Also: conduce (to be favorable), conducer, conducible, conduciveness. [conduco, conducere, conduxi, conductus - to bring together] 

deduction - 1) reasoning from the general to the specific; 2) a conclusion based on reasoning from the general to the specific: The validity of deduction in the realm of metaphysics has been questioned by Kant, among others. Also: deductive, deduce (to reason from general principles to specific conclusions), deducible, deducibility, deducibleness. [deduco, deducere, deduxi, deductus - to lead down; to lead away] 

ductile - that can be hammered out thin or stretched into a wire without breaking: Aluminum makes a less desirable wire for household use than copper because the latter is more ductile than the former. Also: ductileness, ductility (ductile quality) 

educe - bring out; draw out; elicit: Try as she may, she was unable to educe a smile from the unhappy child. Also: educible, educt (something educed), eduction (act of educing), eductive (educing; tending to educe). [educo, educere, eduxi, eductus - to lead forth, bring forth; to raise up] 

induce - to bring on, cause: By lowering the prime-lending rate by a quarter of a percent, the board hoped to induce a moderate upswing in the economy. Also: inducement (an inducing or being induced), inducible, inductive (serving to induce). [induco, inducere, induxi, inductus - to bring in; to spread over, cover] 

induct - to bring into: Denny Crum, coach of the U of L Cardinals, has been inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame. Also: inductee. [induco, cf. induce] 

induction - 1) an inducing or being induced; 2) the act of inducting; 3) reasoning from the particular to the general: Philosophers rely heavily on deduction, scientists on induction. Also: inductive (of or pertaining to logical induction). [induco, cf. induce] 

redux - brought back; returned; restored: Rabbit Redux, a novel by John Updike, is a sequel to Rabbit, Run. [reduco, reducere, reduxi, reductus - to bring back, restore; to lead back, withdraw] 

subduction - the sliding of one of the earth's crusts under another as they collide: Some mountain ranges have been  formed by subduction occurring over millions of years. Also: subduct. [subduco, subducere, subduxi, subductus - to take away, carry off; to withdraw stealthily] 

traduce - falsely to speak evil of; slander; malign: Even if it is possible bolster one's own image by traducing others, is it worth it? Also: traducement, traducer, traducianism (the theory that the parents propagate both body and soul), traducianist (one who believes in traducianism), traducianistic, traduction (transition from one order of reasoning to another). ([traduco, traducere, traduxi, traductus - to lead across, bring over; traductio, traductionis, f. - a transferring; passage; traductor, traductoris, m. - transferrer, conveyer; tradux, traducis, m. - vine branch]

dulcis, dulce - sweet

dulcet - pleasant or soothing to the ear: I have often enjoyed the relaxing, dulcet tones of Phil Coulter's album "Forgotten Dreams," which features the hauntingly beautiful voice of Suzanne Murphy. Also: dulcify (to make more agreeable; sweeten).

duo, duae, duo - two

dualism - the state of being twofold; a duality: In philosophy, dualism is the theory that the world is explicable in terms of mind and matter, whereas the same word means for a theologian the existence of the fundamentally opposite principles of good and evil. Also: dualist (one who adheres to some form of dualism), dualistic (having to do with dualism), duality (a dual quality).

duodecim - twelve

 duodecimal - relating to twelve or counting by twelves: A duodecimal system of mathematics could use "10" for the number twelve and invent single digits, say "§" and "¶," for ten and eleven, respectively. 

duplex, duplicis - double, twofold

duplicity - 1) deceitfulness, double-dealing: Always syrupy nice to his face, she disparaged him at other times; when the duplicity became known to him, he broke off the relationship. 2) the state of being double. Also: duplicitous (characterized by duplicity). 

durus, dura, durum - hard; harsh

duress - constraint; compulsion; coercion; force: The will, written under duress, was declared invalid. 

obdurate - 1) stubborn; obstinate; 2) hardhearted; impenitent: An obdurate felon is unlikely to receive judicial clemency. Also: obduracy, obdurateness. [duro, durare, duravi, duratus - to make or become hard; obduro, obdurare, obduravi, obduratus - to hold out, persist] 

Moutoux, Latin Derivatives 

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