Latin Derivatives
- C -


cado, cadere, cecidi, casurus - to fall

cadence - 1) rhythmic flow; 2) the beat of marching or dancing: The halftime show was impressive until the drums lost the cadence. 3) fall of the voice in speaking. Also: cadenced (marked by a cadence), cadency, cadent (having cadence). 

cascade - (n.) a small waterfall or anything like it, such as a descending arrangement of flowers: A pump forces the water up to a height of three feet, whence it flows in cascades back into the pond. (v.) to fall like a small waterfall. Also: cascader. 

casualty - anyone hurt or killed in an accident: It was reported that enemy casualties outnumbered our own by nearly two to one. [casus, casus, m. - fall; occurrence; chance; opportunity; accident; misfortune] 

decadence - a process or period of moral or cultural decline: Did not Edward Gibbon attribute the fall of the Roman Empire to widespread decadence? Also: decadency, decadent. [de (prep. w/ abl.) - down from, from] 

incidental - 1) happening in conjunction with something else; 2) associated with but minor or of little importance: For the state meet, each athlete was given $50 to cover food and incidental expenses. [incido, incidere, incidi, incasum - to fall, fall in, fall upon; to happen, occur] 

Occident - the western hemisphere; the part of the world west of Asia, including especially Europe and the Americas: We in the Occident, with our emphasis of individualism, cannot appreciate fully the primacy of society in much of the Orient. Also: occidental, occidentality. [occidens, occidentis, m. - sunset; west] 

caedo, caedere, cecidi, caesus - to cut (down); to kill

caesura - 1) a break or pause at or near the middle of a line of poetry: In each stanza of Poe's "The Raven," the word immediately preceding the caesura in line 1 rhymes with the last word of that line, and the word immediately preceding the caesura in line 3 rhymes both with the last word of that line and with the word immediately preceding the caesura in line 4. 2) any break or pause. Also: caesural, caesuric. [caedes, caedis, f. - a cutting (down); a killing]

concise - expressing much in a few words, succinct: Many search engines request a concise statement of the contents of submitted web sites. Also: conciseness, concision. [concido, concidere, concidi, concisus - to cut in pieces; to cut down] 

incisive - sharp, keen, penetrating, cutting: Lauded by some for his incisive intellect, assailed by others for his caustic wit, the newspaper’s newest pundit knew he had found his niche. Also: incise (to cut into), incision, incisiveness, incisor (one of the front teeth between the canine teeth), incisory (adapted for cutting). [incido, incidere, incidi, incisus - to cut into] 

caelum, caeli, n. - sky

celestial - 1) of the sky or universe: Shortly after moving with his family to the crystal-clear air of the Arizona desert, Bob bought a large telescope to view the celestial bodies. 2) heavenly. Also: celestiality, celestialness. [caelestis, caeleste - of or from heaven, heavenly, celestial] 

caeruleus, caerulea, caeruleum - blue

cerulean - deep blue; sky blue: In the spring she returned often to the cerulean skies of Southern Italy.

calamitas, calamitatis, f. - loss, failure

calamitous - disastrous: After a nearly calamitous first half, the tournament favorites rallied and pulled out a victory in the final seconds, avoiding the ignominy of being the first No. 1 seed ever to lose to a No. 16. Also: calamitousness, calamity. [calamitosus, calamitosa, calamitosum - destructive; suffering damage, unfortunate]

calamity - 1) a great disaster; an extreme misfortune: What seems like a calamity to a child, like a dropped ice-cream cone or a broken toy, often seems trivial to adults; of course, most children are unable to appreciate the gravity of a failed love affair or the loss of a job. 2) serious trouble. Also: calamitous, calamitousness. [calamitosus, calamitosa, calamitosum - destructive]

calidus, calida, calidum - warm, hot

caldron - a large kettle: In the opening scene of Macbeth, three wirtches stand around a bubbling cauldron and sing of their anticipated encounter with Macbeth.

callosus, callosa, callosum - hard-skinned

callous - 1. hardened; 2. insensitive, unsympathetic: Few people are so callous that they will not try to help a close friend or relative who is suffering; the truly amazing humans are those whose willingness to help excludes no one. [callum, calli, n. - a hard skin] 

calumnia, calumniae, f. - trickery; misrepresentation

calumny - a false statement intended to hurt someone’s reputation: Calumny is particularly nefarious when the calumniator manages to conceal his identity. Also: calumniate (to lie for the purpose of injuring someone’s reputation), calumniation, calumniator, calumniatory, calumnious. [calumniator, calumniatoris, m. - trickster, false accuser; calumnior, calumniari, calumniatus sum - to accuse falsely] 

candidus, candida, candidum - shining white; clear; bright; honest

candid - 1) honest, sincere, straightforward: One learns early in life that candid answers, even when solicited, aren’t always appreciated. 2) impartial; 3) unposed. Also: candidness, candor (candidness). [candor, candoris, m. - brilliant whiteness; sincerity, openness] 

canis, canis, m. or f. - dog

canine - of or like a dog: Canine units of police forces and of the military have been successful because of their dogs'
faithfulness, power of scent, and intuitive sense of impending danger. Also: caninity. 

caper, capri, m. - goat

caper - (v.) to play or skip about playfully; (n.) 1) a playful leap or skip; 2) a frivolous, carefree action; a prank: He put the capers of his youth behind and became a responsible husband and father. [capra, caprae, f. - she-goat]

capio, capere, cepi, captus - to take; to seize, capture

capacious - able to hold much; spacious; large: The tiny rooms of their house contrast strangely with the capacious bathroom. Also: capaciousness. [capax, capacis - containing much; spacious] 

captious - 1) disposed to find fault; hypercritical: They were made for each other; he was captious and she was masochistic. 2) made only for the sake of faultfinding. Also: captiousness. [captiosus, captiosa, captiosum - deceptive, sophistical] 

emancipate - to set free; to release from slavery or restraint: Lincoln said in a letter to Horace Greeley that if he could save the Union by not emancipating the slaves, he would do so. Also: emancipation, emancipative, emancipator, emancipatory. [emancipo, emancipare, emancipavi, emancipatus - to release, declare free] 

incapacitate - to disable; to deprive of ability or power: The fall incapacitated her, so that she missed the remainder of the basketball season. Also: incapacitant (something that incapacitates), incapacitation, incapacity (lack of capacity or power). [capacitas, capacitatis, f. - capacity] 

inception - a beginning: Four years had gone by since the inception of the ambitious project, and still no definite date could be given for its completion. Also: inceptive (beginning). [incipio, incipere, incepi, inceptus - to take to, begin] 

incipient - (adj.) beginning; in the first stages: Waning classicism was contemporaneous with incipient romanticism, waning romanticism with incipient realism, etc., with each new literary movement overlapping its predecessor. Also: incipience (the very beginning), incipiency (incipience). [incipio, incipere, incepi, inceptus - to take to, begin] 

precept - a rule of action or conduct; commandment: The young priest argued that eating meat on Friday violated a church precept, not a divine directive. Also: preceptive (having to do with or expressing a precept), preceptor (a teacher). [praeceptum, praecepti, n. - rule, precept] 

caput, capitis, n. - head

capital (adj.) - 1) punishable by death: Convicted of a capital offense when he was only eighteen, the young man spent the next four years on death row; then his sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. 2) involving the loss of life; 3) most important; 4) having to do with wealth; 5) excellent. [capitalis, capitale - foremost, distinguished; involving life; deadly] 

capital (noun) - 1) money or wealth capable of being used to make more wealth: Finding himself without sufficient capital for routine business expenses, Oscar sold the store and moved to the West. 2) seat of government. [capital, capitalis, n. - crime punishable by death or exile] 

capitalism - economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and are operated for a profit: Capitalism has been criticized for its tendency toward concentration of wealth in the hands of a few. Also: capitalist, capitalistic. [capital, cf. capital (noun)] 

capitulate - to surrender (upon stipulated conditions): When the general became aware of the numerical imbalance between the two armies, he sought to capitulate. Also: capitulant, capitulation, capitulationism (approval of capitulation), capitulationist, capitulator. [capitulum, capituli, n. - little head] 

recapitulate - to restate briefly, summarize: Having completed an exhaustive and exhausting three-hour presentation, she was asked by the chairman of the committee to recapitulate. Also: recapitulation, recapitulative, recapitulatory. 

carcer, carceris, m. - prison

incarcerate - to imprison: If the state incarcerates a man convicted of murder, he can be released if he is later shown to be innocent. Also: incarceration, incarcerative, incarcerator.

careo, carere, carui, cariturus - to be without; to do without

caret - a mark made in written or printed matter to show where something is to be inserted: The essay, carefully written and submitted with pride, was returned by the teacher with a plethora of red lines, circles, and carets.

caro, carnis, f. - flesh, meat

carnivorous - flesh-eating (habitually eating flesh or meat): Some animals are carnivorous, e.g., lions and tigers; others are herbivorous (habitually eating plants), e.g., cows and sheep; while still others are omnivorous (habitually eating both flesh and plants), e.g., pigs and humans. Also: carnivore (a flesh-eating animal), carnivorousness. 

castigo, castigare, castigavi, castigatus - to set right, reprove, punish, chastise

castigate - 1) to criticize severely; 2) to punish, chastise: Many a loving parent finds it necessary to castigate a disobedient child, but what loving parent would want to punish a son or daughter eternally? Also: castigation, castigative, castigator, castigatory. [castigatio, castigationis, f. - reproof; punishment; castigator, castigatoris, m. - one who reproves or chastises] 

castra, castrorum, n. pl. - camp

castellated - 1) built like a castle, with turrets and battlements: One of the new million-dollar homes just east of town is not only huge but even castellated. 2) having many castles. [castellum, castelli, n. - castle, fortress] 

casus, casus, m. - fall; case

casuistry - 1) the application of principles of morality to particular cases; 2) subtle misuse of reason; sophistry: It's one thing to impute casuistry to enemies who use reason cleverly, quite another thing to expose it. Also: casuist (one who reasons subtly but dishonestly, especially in moral questions), casuistic, casuistical. 

causa, causae, f. - reason, cause

causal - having to do with cause and effect: The invariable occurrence of one phenomenon immediately after another does not in and of itself establish a causal relationship between the two phenomena. Also: causality (the relation of cause and effect; causal quality), causation (the act of causing), causational, causationism (the theory that every happening has a prior and adequate cause), causative (producing an effect), causativeness, causativity. 

cavea, caveae, f. - a hollow place; den; cage

cajole - to persuade by flattery or false promises: The students cajoled their credulous teacher into taking them outside but paid for their deviousness when rain began to fall. Also: cajolement, cajolery. 

cedo, cedere, cessi, cessus - to move; to yield, give way

accede - 1) to give in (to), agree (to): At the last moment, the labor union acceded to the wishes of the majority of the workers, and a strike was averted. 2) to enter upon, attain (to an office) Also: accedence (an agreeing to; an entering upon), acceder, accession (a coming into a right or an office; assent, agreement; an increase), accessional. [accedo, accedere, accessi, accessus - to go to, go near, approach] 

accessible - 1) able to be reached: Some of the best fishing lakes in northern Minnesota are, for all practical purposes, accessible only by air. 2) easy to reach. Also: accessibility, inaccessibility, inaccessible (unable to be reached; hard to reach). [accessio, accessionis, f. - approach; accessus, accessus, m. - approach] 

antecedent - (n.) 1) something happening before (and leading up to) something else: The Versailles Treaty was a tragic antecedent of the rise of Adolf Hitler. 2) the word or words referred to by a pronoun; (adj.) preceding in time, rank, or causality. Also: antecede (to come or happen before), antecedence (the act or fact of being antecedent), antecedency (antecedence), antecedental, antecessor (person who goes before). [antecedo, antecedere, antecessi, antecessus - to precede] 

cede - 1) to give up, hand over to another; 2) to transfer ownership to: At the end of World War I, Austria was forced to cede South Tyrol to Italy. Also: cession (a ceding). 

incessant - never stopping; continuing without interruption: The incessant talking could not be tolerated, and the offenders were asked to leave the room. Also: incessancy, incessantness. 

intercede - to plead in another's behalf: Representatives of several humanitarian organizations interceded with the governor in behalf of the condemned man. Also: interceder, intercession (act of interceding), intercessional, intercessor, intercessory (having to do with intercession). [intercedo, intercedere, intercessi, intercessus - to go between] 

precedent - an act, statement, case, etc. that may serve as an example for a later one: The commissioner commented that the widespread disregard for the Pledge of Allegiance among high school students is without precedent in the 100-year history of the pledge. Also: precedence (act or fact of preceding; priority because of superior rank or position),  precedency (precedence), precedentless. [praecedo, praecedere, praecessi, praecessus - to go before] 

recession - 1) in economics, a period of general decline in business activity: Investors saw no reason to panic; there was little chance the recession would develop into a depression. 2) a going backward; 3) a procession leaving a place. Also: recede (draw back, move away), recessional (a piece of music played during a recession in sense #3 above), recessionary  (of or pertaining to a recession in sense #1 above), recessionproof (unable to lapse into an economic recession), recessive (tending to recede; in genetics, said of genes that are not dominant), recessiveness. [recedo, recedere, recessi, recessus - to draw back, fall back; recessus, recessus, m. - a going back, retreat] 

secede - to withdraw formally from membership in a (political) group: In December of 1860 South Carolina became the first state to secede from the Union. Also: seceder, secession, secessional, secessionism (the principles of secession), secessionist (one who favors secession). [secedo, secedere, secessi, secessus - to withdraw; secessus, secessus, m. - withdrawal] 

celer, celeris, celere - swift, quick

celerity - quickness: With unusual celerity she picked up all the toys and clothing on the floor, changed clothes, and brushed her hair and teeth. [celeritas, celeritatis, f. - swiftness, speed] 

cena, cenae, f. - dinner

cenacle - room in which the Last Supper is said to have taken place: A famous painting by Leonardo da Vinci depicts Jesus and his apostles sitting at a large rectangular table in the cenacle; curiously, they are all facing the same direction. [cenaculum, cenaculi, n. - upper story, upper room; cenatio, cenationis, f. - dining room; ceno, cenare, cenavi, cenatus - dine]

censor, censorius, m. - a Roman public official whose duties included, among other things, watching over public morals

censorious - severely critical, eager to find fault: The principal reminded the new teachers that it is possible to be critical without being censorious. Also: censor (n., an official who examines the moral content of movies, books, plays, etc. for the purpose of suppressing objectionable parts; v., to act as a censor), censorable, censorial, censorian, censoriousness, censorship. [censorius, censoria, censorium - pertaining to the censor; severe] 

censura, censurae, f. - censorship; the office of censor

censure - (v.) to criticize vehemently; (n.) vehement expression of disapproval: The Judiciary Committee of the House of Representatives voted against a resolution recommending a formal censure of President Clinton for alleged illegal attempts to cover up actions involving Monica Lewinsky; instead the Committee voted 22 to 14 for impeachment. Also: censurable, censurableness, censurability, censureless. 

centum - one hundred

centenarian - a person who is at least 100 years old: Is it true that the President sends a birthday card to every centenarian in the United States? Also: centenary (of or pertaining to a century or to a period of 100 years). 

centennial - a 100th anniversary: The college celebrated its centennial two years ago. 

cerebrum, cerebri, n. - brain

cerebral - 1) of the brain; 2) of or appealing to the intellect instead of the emotions: Bertold Brecht’s epic theater is cerebral rather than emotional; for example, he has characters step out of their roles and address the audience directly. Also: cerebrate (to think), cerebration, cerebrational.

cerno, cernere, crevi, cretus - to separate; to discern, see

discern - to recognize visually or mentally as separate or different; to see clearly; to perceive: Contemplation or no, she was simply unable to discern which of the unfamiliar faces in the old class photo had belonged to her mother. Also: discerner, discernible also spelled discernable, discernibleness also spelled discernableness, discernment. [discerno, discernere, discrevi, discretus - to separate; to distinguish] 

discerning - having good insight and understanding; astute: A discerning reader can recognize junk when she reads  it. [discerno, cf. discern] 

discrete - separate, distinct; discontinuous: Unlike calculus, discrete mathematics does not deal with continuous functions. Also: discreteness, indiscrete. [discerno, cf. discern] 

discretion - 1) the freedom to judge and choose; 2) the quality of using good judgment in what one says and does: The old saying "discretion is the better part of valor" is an admonition against foolhardiness. Also: discreet (using good judgment in what one says and does) , discretional, discretionary (left to one's discretion), indiscreet, indiscreetness, indiscretion, indiscretionary. [discerno, cf. discern] 

certus, certa, certum - fixed, sure

ascertain - to find out; learn; discover: The special investigator insisted that he was trying to ascertain the truth, not fabricate a case against the President. Also: ascertainable, ascertainer, ascertainment. 

cervus, cervi, m. - stag; deer

cervine - 1) of or like a deer: The ice skater dazzled the crown with her athleticism and cervine gracefulness. 2) of the deer family. [ cerva, cervae, f. - hind, doe; deer; cervinus, cervina, cervinum - of a stag or deer]

circuitus, circuitus, m. - a going round in a circle; revolution; circuit

circuitous - roundabout, meandering, indirect: The teacher asked the student to pare his 1000-word essay down to 500 words by eliminating all redundant, superfluous, and circuitous elements. Also: circuit, circuiter (one who travels a circuit), circuitousness, circuitry, circuity (circuitous quality). [circu(m)eo, circu(m)ire, circu(m)i(v)i, circu(m)itus - to go round; circu(m)itio, circu(m)itionis, f. - a going round]

circum (prep. w/ acc.) - around

circumspect - careful to consider all circumstances before acting or judging; cautious; prudent: The circumspect eye of the veteran personnel director took note of every detail of attire, mannerism, and speech of prospective employees. Also: circumspection (caution; cautious observation), circumspective, circumspectness. 

civis, civis, m. or f. - citizen, fellow citizen

civic - of or pertaining to citizens: The mayor said it was everyone's civic duty to take an active part in the war against drugs. Also: civics (study of the rights and duties of citizens). 

civility - politeness, courtesy: Without civility, civilization has no heart. Also: civil (polite, at least formally), incivility (rudeness). [civilis, civile - of citizens; courteous; civilitas, civilitatis, f. - politeness] 

civil rights - rights of a citizen as guaranteed by the Bill of Rights, by several additional amendments to the Constitution, and by certain acts of Congress: Believing that her civil rights had been violated, she sought a lawyer. Also: civil disobedience (non-violent refusal to obey the law, on the grounds of conscience), civil law (law protecting the private rights of citizens, in contrast to military law and ecclesiastical law). 

clam - secretly

clandestine - done in secrecy for the purpose of deception: The CIA uses clandestine means to obtain secret information. Also: clandestineness, clandestinity.

clamo, clamare, clamavi, clamatus - to shout, cry out

acclaim - 1) to greet or announce with loud applause or praise: The media acclaimed her a new Eleanor Roosevelt. 2) a shout or show of approval or praise. Also: acclaimer. [acclamo, acclamare, acclamavi, acclamatus - shout at, cry out to; acclaim] 

acclamation - 1) acclaim; 2) an enthusiastic, oral vote of approval: Mr. Russell, longtime leader of the majority party, was elected president by acclamation. Also: acclamatory (expressing acclamation). [acclamatio, acclamationis, f. - a calling out] 

declaim - to speak as an orator; to attack strongly with words, inveigh: The union president declaimed against corporate malevolence and civic lethargy. Also: declamation. [declamo, declamare, declamavi, declamatus - to practice public speaking; to speak loudly and vehemently; declamatio, declamationis, f. - practice in public speaking; loud, vehement speaking] 

disclaim - 1) to refuse to acknowledge: The IRA today disclaimed responsibility for the explosion in downtown London yesterday that killed nine people. 2) to give up claim to. Also: disclaimer (denial; rejection), disclamation (a disclaiming), disclamatory. 

clamor, clamoris, m. - shout; noise

clamor - (n.) a great outcry or prolonged expression of discontent, especially by a disorganized group or a mob; (v.) to make a clamor; to cry out: For three days the governor had heard the crowd clamoring for the reprieve of the convicted killer. Also: clamorer, clamorist, clamorous (loudly demanding or complaining), clamorousness. 

clarus, clara, clarum - clear; famous

claret - 1) a dry red wine made in Bordeaux, France; 2) a similar wine made elsewhere: Accustomed to Chianti from their native Italy, they drank the local claret when in France. 3) purplish red. 

clarion - (n.) a shrill-sounding trumpet used in former times for war signals; (adj.) clear, sharp, and ringing; (v.) to announce forcefully or loudly: Twice each day without fail, the bells of the village church clarioned their message of redemption to the local peasants, who, upon hearing the bells, would stop what they were doing and pray the "Angelus." 

claudo, claudere, clausi, clausus - to shut, close

claustrophobia - the abnormal fear of being in confined places: The number of stairs one is willing to climb to avoid the confining walls of an elevator must say something about the severity of one's claustrophobia. Also: claustrophobic (having to do with claustrophobia). [claustra, claustrorum, n. - bar; bolt; enclosure] 

cloister - 1) a covered walkway along an outer wall of a building with a row of pillars on the open side: She liked to drive to the old mission on cool evenings and walk along the cloister as the missionaries of old must have done. 2) a convent or a monastery; (v.) to shut away in a convent or monastery. Also: cloistral (of or suitable for a convent or monastery). 

closure - 1) a closing or being closed: The committee members agreed that, although they had probed important areas of disagreement and had placed several troublesome issues squarely on the table, a satisfying closure was not in sight. 2) end; conclusion; 3) something that closes. 

cloture - a method of ending a debate and forcing an immediate vote on the question at hand: One method of ending a filibuster is cloture, which, in the U. S. Senate, requires a three-fifths vote of the membership. [claustrum, claustri, n. - barrier, hindrance]

disclosure - the act of making known or revealing: The disclosure of new evidence sent the reporters scurrying to the phones. Also: disclose (to make known; to reveal), discloser. 

foreclose - 1) to prevent; exclude; 2) to take away the right to redeem a mortgage: They don't live there anymore; the bank foreclosed and sold the house. Also: foreclosure (the act of foreclosing), foreclosable. 

occlude - 1) to block (a passage): When the dam broke, high water occluded the tunnels and made safe passage impossible. 2) to shut in or out. Also: occlusion (an occluding or being occluded; the way the top and bottom teeth fit together), occludent (adj.: occluding), occlusive (occluding or tending to occlude), occlusiveness. [occludo, occludere, occlusi, occlusus - to close up] 

preclude - to make impossible (in advance): Their patronizing benevolence precludes genuine gratitude and invites sycophancy. Also: precludable, preclusion (a precluding or being precluded), preclusive (tending to preclude). [praecludo, praecludere, praeclusi, praeclusus - to shut, make inaccessible] 

reclusive - living a solitary life, shut away from the world: The largest donation came from a reclusive millionaire living in the mountains of Idaho. Also: recluse (a person who lives a solitary life), reclusion (the state or fact of being or becoming a recluse). 

seclude - to shut off from others; to cut off from public view: Even in a crowded neighborhood you can seclude your patio by surrounding it with tall shrubs. Also: seclusion (a secluding or being secluded), seclusive (tending to seclude), seclusiveness. [secludo, secludere, seclusi, seclusus - to shut apart, separate from others, seclude] 

clavis, clavis, f. - key

enclave - (adj.) 1) a territory surrounded or mostly surrounded by the territory of another country; 2) a small, discrete area or group enclosed within a larger one: In many European countries, Jews were forced to live in enclaves called ghettos. (v.) to isolate within a foreign environment.

clemens, clementis - mild, gentle; kind, compassionate

clemency - 1) act of showing mercy or compassion: In February of 1999, the State of Oklahoma executed Sean Sellers, a 29-year-old man convicted of murdering three people when he was 16. The state Pardon and Parole Board had voted unanimously against clemency for Sellers. 2) tendency to act compassionately. Also: clement (mild; merciful). [clementia, clementiae, f. - mildness; mercy] 

cliens, clientis, m. - client; dependent

clientele - all of one's clients (people served, customers), collectively: She wondered how her move to the east end of town would affect her clientele. [clientela, clientelae, f. - relationship of client and patron; pl., clients] 

cogito, cogitare, cogitavi, cogitatus - to think, reflect

cogitate - (intrans.) to think, ponder: The students having presented their proposal, the headmistress declared that she would cogitate for a day before giving her answer. (trans) to think about, devise. Also: cogitable (conceivable), cogitability, cogitator, cogitation, cogitative, cogitativeness. [cogitatio, cogitationis, f. - thinking]

cogo, cogere, coegi, coactus - to collect; to compel

cogent - compelling, convincing: The speaker gave cogent reasons why everyone in the community should use less water. Also: cogency (the quality or state of being cogent). 

cohors, cohortis, f. - an enclosure, yard; a troop, company; the tenth part of a Roman legion

cohort - 1) group, company; 2) companion, associate; accomplice: Because their new business venture afforded them a generous profit, they jokingly referred to each other as cohorts in crime. 3) the tenth part (from 300 to 600 soldiers) of a Roman legion. [hortus, horti, m. - garden]

colossus, colossi, m. - a gigantic statue (especially the statue of Apollo at Rhodes)

colossal - gigantic: The ancient Roman Colosseum, colossal in the first century c.e., is smaller than many present-day arenas. Also: colossality, colossus (gigantic statue of Apollo at Rhodes; any gigantic statue; anything gigantic). [colosseus, colossea, colosseum - gigantic]

comes, comitis, m/f. - companion

concomitant - (adj.) occurring with something else, accompanying: The Renaissance brought with it a renewed interest in the art and ideas of classical Greece and Rome and a concomitant shift in focus away from the divine and toward the human; thus, for example, halos disappeared in 16th-century art. (n.) an accompanying thing. Also: concomitance, concomitancy. [comitor, comitari, comitatus sum - to accompany] 

communis, commune - common, shared

commonality - 1) the common people; 2) common quality or condition; a sharing of things like characteristics and interests: Civil harmony is attributable, at least in part, to a commonality of beliefs and interests. Also: commonalty (the common people). 

commonweal - the common good: Should the commonweal always be placed above individual interests? 

commune - (v.) to be in close rapport: For some people, nature is a church, and communing with nature is a form of prayer. (n.) a small group of people living together and sharing all work, profits, etc. Also: communal (belonging to the community; shared or participated in by all; of or pertaining to a commune or communes). 

communism - 1) an economic system in which all property is communal; 2) a system of government in which dictatorial leaders profess to be working towards a classless society in which goods are distributed equally to all: In Russia, formerly the largest state in the USSR, the replacement of communism by capitalism has met with major problems, including inflation and the rise of organized crime. Also: communist, communistic. 

excommunicate - to expel from membership in a church: Pope Leo X excommunicated Martin Luther in 1521 when the latter denied the inerrancy of the pope and of church councils. Also: excommunicable, excommunication, excommunicative, excommunicator, excommunicatory. [e(x) (prep. w/ abl.) - out of, from; communico, communicare, communicavi, communicatus - to share (in); to join] 

compleo, complere, complevi, completus - to fill up

compliance - 1) act of conforming; acting in agreement with a request, command, or law: In compliance with subdivision regulations, the Conrads submitted to the board their plans for the addition of dormers. 2) tendency to yield to others. Also: compliant, compliancy (compliance), compliant, comply. 

concilio, conciliare, conciliavi, conciliatus - to unite, bring together

conciliatory - tending to win over or to soothe by means of friendly acts or words: Successful negotiators know that conciliatory words and gestures are sometimes necessary to restore wounded pride and move discussion forward. Also: conciliable, conciliate (to win over by means of friendly acts or words), conciliative (conciliatory), conciliator, conciliatoriness. [conciliatio, conciliationis, f. - a uniting, a bringing together] 

concordia, concordiae, f. - harmony

concord - harmony; agreement: Happiness and concord are the words she used most often to characterize her early home life. 

concordance - 1) agreement; harmony; 2) an alphabetical list of the key words in a book or in the works of an author along with references to the passages in which they occur: At the library sale she was able to buy a large biblical concordance for only three dollars. Also: concordat (a formal agreement, especially one made between the pope and a government), concordant (agreeing; harmonious). [concordo, concordare, concordavi, concordatus - to be in harmony, be of one mind] 

discord - 1) disagreement; conflict: The former cordiality between the two schools has been replaced by discord and distrust. 2) absence of harmoniousness. Also: discordance, discordancy, discordant. [discordia, discordiae, f. - disagreement, dissension; discordo, discordare, discordavi, discordatus - to dissagree; to quarrel] 

condo, condere, condidi, conditus - to found, establish; to put away (where it will be safe), store; to hide

abscond - to go away suddenly and secretly: Already suspected of embezzlement, the bookkeeper absconded with the Friday's receipts and hasn't been heard from since. Also: abscondence. [abscondo, abscondere, abscondi, absconditus - to hide, conceal]. 

recondite - 1) profound, abstruse, hard to understand: Don't be too swift to pronounce a passage recondite; it may be nonsensical. 2) obscure, little known. Also: reconditeness. [reconditus, recondita, reconditum - put away; hidden, concealed; recondo, recondere, recondidi, reconditus - to put away, store; to hide]

conficio, conficere, confeci, confectus - to complete, accomplish, fulfill

discomfit - 1) to frustrate the plans or expectations of; thwart; 2) to make uneasy; disconcert: Discomfited by their opponents’ three first-quarter touchdowns, the packed house grew silent in anticipation of yet another humiliating loss. Also: discomfiter, discomfiture. [confectio, confectionis, f. - a finishing, completing; confector, confectoris, m. - an accomplisher; facio, facere, feci, factus - to do, make]

confido, confidere, confisus sum - to trust; to be assured

confidante - a woman to whom secrets are confided: The confidante of several, she herself neither has nor desires a confidante. Also: confidant (a person to whom secrets are confided), confide, confider, confidence, confident, confidente (a kind of sofa with a triangular seat at each end), confidential, confidentiality, confidentialness, confidingness. [confidentia, confidentiae, f. - confidence; confisio, confisionis, f. - confidence]

conflagro, conflagrare, conflagravi, conflagraturus - to blaze up, be consumed by fire

conflagration - a large, destructive fire: Looking south from their homes, the residents of Conifer, Colorado, could see huge banks of smoke and, here and there, tongues of fire; for several days, they feared that the conflagration would cross Highway 265 and destroy their homes. Also: conflagrant (on fire), conflagrate (to burst into flame). [flagrantia, flagrantiae, f. - a glow; flagro, flagrare, flagravi, flagratus - to burn, blaze] 

congruo, congruere, congrui - to come together, meet; coincide

incongruous - out of place, inappropriate; lacking in agreement, inconsistent: Her personal lifestyle seems incongruous with her stated goal of reforming the morals of America. Also: congruence, congruent (agreeing; coinciding when superimposed), congruity, congruous (harmonious; appropriate), congruousness, incongruence, incongruent, incongruity, incongruousness. 

coniunx, coniugis, m. & f. - spouse

conjugal - of or pertaining to marriage or to the relation of husband and wife: Conjugal love means, or ought to mean, more than sex. Also: conjugality. [coniugalis, coniugale - conjugal; coniugialis, coniugiale - conjugal; coniugium, coniugi, n. - union; marriage; coniugo, coniugare, coniugavi, coniugatus - to bind together; coniunctio, coniunctionis, f. - a joining together; coniungo, coniungere, coniunxi, coniunctus - to join together]

consors, consortis, m. & f. - partner, comrade

consort - (n.) 1) partner; 2) spouse; 3) ship that accompanies another; (v.) 1) to associate with someone (objectionable): Suspected of consorting with the enemy, the atomic scientist was placed by the FBI under close surveillance. 2) to agree, accord. Also: consortable, consorter, consortion, consortium. [consortio, consortionis, f. - community, companionship; consortium, consorti, n. - partnership, fellowship]

conspicio, conspicere, conspexi, conspectus - to catch sight of, see

conspectus - 1) a general view; survey; 2) an outline; a summary: On bad days he could have written a conspectus of his life in three words: boredom, sorrow, pain. Also: conspicuity, conspicuous (easily noticed; attracting attention), conspicuousness. [conspiciendus, conspicienda, conspiciendum - worth seeing; conspicor, conspicari, conspicatus sum - to catch sight of, perceive; conspicuus, conspicua, conspicuum - visible, apparent]

conspicuous - 1) easily visible; obvious: Stop signs must be conspicuous, not partially hidden by bushes or trees. 2) attracting attention; striking. Also: conspicuity, conspicuousness, inconspicuous, inconspicuousness. [conspicuus, conspicua, conspicuum - visible, obvious; remarkable] 

consto, constare, constiti, constatus - to be consistent; stand firm; remain the same

constancy - 1) firmness of mind or purpose; steadfastness: Virtue taken to an extreme becomes vice; for example, industriousness become workaholism, frugality becomes miserliness, and constancy becomes obduracy. 2) absence of change. [constans, constantis - firm, steady; constantia, constantiae, f. - firmness, steadiness]

consuetudo, consuetudinis, f. - custom, habit

consuetude - custom regarded as having legal force: Consuetude and judicial caprice must be the major determiners of legality in places where no articulated legal code exists. Also: consuetudinary (customary). [consuesco, consuescere, sonsuevi, consuetus - to accustom, habituate]

contemno, contemnere, contempsi, contemptus - to despise

contemn - to despise; to treat or think of with scorn: By all accounts he was highly intelligent; yet he contemned the unintelligent, which always made us wonder how intelligent he really was. Also: contemner, contemnible, contempt (disdain, scorn), contemptible, contemptibility, contemptibleness, contemptuous (expressing contempt), contemptuousness. [contemptim - contemptuously, scornfully; contemptio, contemptionis, f. - a despising; contempt, disdain, scorn; contemptor, contemptoris, m. - a despiser; contemptrix, contemptricis, f. - she who despises; contemptus, contemptus, m. - contempt, disdain]

contumacia, contumaciae, f. - obstinacy, stubbornness

contumacious - obstinately disobedient: It has been suggested more than once that contumacious students be sent to special schools in which corporal punishment is allowed. Also: contumaciousness, contumacy. [contumax, contumacis - insolent, obstinate]

contumelia, contumeliae, f. - insult

contumelious - contemptuously insulting; abusive: The magazine’s irresponsible, contumelious article was countered by a lawsuit for libel. Also: contumeliousness, contumely (contemptuously insulting words). [contumeliosus, contumeliosa, contumeliosum - insulting]

conversor, conversari, conversatus sum - to live, abide

conversant - familiar (with) as a result of study or use: If someone asks about the weather and you say that you are not "sufficiently conversant with meteorological minutiae," you will be considered a nerd. Also: conversance, conversancy. [converso, conversare - to turn around; verso, versare, versavi, versatus - to keep turning]

copia, copiae, f. - plenty, supply, abundance

copious - plentiful, abundant: The teacher advised the students to take copious notes, which could be turned in at the end of the semester for extra credit. Also: copiosity, copiousness, cornucopia (horn of plenty). 

cornucopia - 1) a mythological horn containing an endless supply of food and drink; 2) an abundance, an overflowing supply: The inhabitants of the Fiji islands may not have digital TVs, cell phones, and the latest computers, but they are blessed with a cornucopia of natural delights. Also: copious, copiousness, copiosity, cornucopian, cornucopiate. [copiosus, copiosa, copiosum - wealthy; abundant; cornu, cornus, n. - horn; cornutus, cornuta, cornutum - horned]

cor, cordis, n. - heart

accordant - in agreement (with) conforming (to): Their family business, accordant with the highest standards of technology, finance, and morality, brought them a reasonable revenue and a great deal of personal satisfaction. Also: accord (to grant; to agree with; agreement, harmony), accordable (reconcilable), accordance (act of granting; agreement, conformity). 

cordial - warm; friendly; heartfelt: The cordial dialogue between the two leaders bodes well for continued world peace. Also: cordiality, cordialness. 

corium, cori, n. - skin, hide, leather

currier - 1) one who dresses and colors tanned leather: The Shakers attracted to their ranks curriers, coopers, and carpenters--a wide variety of craftsmen of quality, whose work won the admiration of many a non-Shaker. 2) one who rubs and cleans horses with a brush. Also: curriery (occupation of a currier), curry (to prepare tanned leather; to rub and clean horses), currycomb (metal brush used to rub and clean horses).

excoriate - 1) to strip off the skin; 2) to berate severely, denounce violently: In olden times it was not unusual for teachers to excoriate disobedient students; nowadays greater restraint is expected of teachers. Also: excoriation, excoriative.

corpus, corporis, n. - body

corporeal - 1) of or having the nature of a body; bodily; 2) material (tangible): I knew the "ghost" was corporeal when I saw it trip over a chair. Also: corporeality, corporealness, corporeity (the state or quality of being corporeal), incorporeal, incorporeality, incorporeity. [corporeus, corporea, corporeum - of or pertaining to the body, corporeal] 

corpulence - excessive fatness: Now seriously overweight, the police lieutenant was told by the new chief to choose between corpulence and the retention of his position. Also: corpulent (obese). [corpulentia, corpulentiae, f. - fatness; corpulentus, corpunta, corpulentum - fat] 

incorporate - to make something a part of something else: His teacher suggested that she incorporate material from last semester's report on afterimages into her report on advertising. Also: incorporatedness, incorporation, incorporator. 

corrigo, corrigere, correxi, correctus - to set right, correct

incorrigible - so firmly fixed that no reform or correction can be expected: Teachers have labeled as incorrigible many a child who later became a teacher. Also: corrigible, corrigibility, corrigibleness, incorrigibility, incorrigibleness. 

cotidie - daily, every day

quotidian - 1) daily (recurring every day); 2) everyday (usual, ordinary): Confident that she had packed enough clothes and personal items to meet quotidian needs, she lugged her suitcase down to the waiting car. 

cras - tomorrow

procrastinate - to put off doing something: Students who procrastinate habitually end up burning the midnight oil at exam time. Also: procrastination, procrastinative, procrastinativeness, procrastinator, procrastinatory. [procrastino, procrastinare, procrastinavi, procrastinatus - to put off till tomorrow (later, from day to day)] 

credo, credere, credidi, creditus - to believe, trust

accredit - 1) to attribute credit to: At the retirement ceremony, she was accredited with having imaginatively and courageously blazed new trails in an old industry. 2) to recognize as meeting specific standards. Also: accreditable, accreditation, accreditment. [accredo, accredere, accredidi, accreditus - to have faith in, believe] 

credence - belief: The employees were advised to investigate important matters thoroughly and not to give credence to rumors. 

credible - believable: The testimony of the eyewitness was perceived by the jurors as credible. Also: credibility, crdibleness, incredible, incredibility, incredibleness. [credibilis, credibile - worthy of belief; credible; incredibilis, incredibile - not believable, incredible] 

creditable - deserving or bringing praise; respectable: The performance, while not outstanding, was creditable and deserved a more positive review than it received. Also: creditability (the quality of being creditable), creditableness. 

creditor - person(s) to whom money is owed. When they finish college, they have to begin repaying their creditors. Also: creditorship. [creditor, creditoris, m. - creditor] 

credulous - believing too readily; easily deceived: The credulous elderly couple made an easy target for confidence men. Also: credulity (too great readiness to believe), credulousness (credulity), incredulity (lack of belief; doubt), incredulous (unwilling to believe; doubting), incredulity, incredulousness. [credulitas, credulitatis, f. - rash belief, credulity; credulus, credula, credulum - believing (too) easily; credulous; incredulus, incredula, incredulum - incredulous] 

discredit - (v.) 1) to cast doubt on: The prosecuting attorney attempted to discredit the testimony of the star witness for the defense. 2) to refuse to believe; 3) to damage the reputation of; disgrace; (n.) 1) the loss of belief; doubt; 2) the loss of reputation. Also: discreditable, discreditability. 

miscreant - (adj.) evil; (n.) an evil person: Given the derivation of the word "miscreant," one is not surprised to learn that it formerly denoted an unbeliever or a heretic. Also: miscreance (false religious faith), miscreancy (evil, depravity). 

recreant - (adj.) 1) cowardly; 2) disloyal; (n.) 1) coward; 2) traitor: Considered a recreant by the Church of Rome, Luther risked sharing the fate of Savonarola, a religious reformer who had been burned at the stake for heresy just a few years earlier, in 1498. Also: recreance, recreancy. 

cresco, crescere, crevi, cretus - to grow, increase

accretion - 1) growth; addition; 2) the addition of soil to land: The storms of winter erode the beaches of southern California, which the gentler waves of summer restore by accretion. Also: accrescence (growth, increase), accrescent (growing), accrete (to add by growth). [accresco, accrescere, accrevi, accretus - to grow, increase; accretio, accretionis f. - growth, increase] 

crescendo - (n.) a gradual increase in force or intensity; (v.) to increase gradually in force or intensity: The applause crescendoed as Nicklaus and Palmer strode down the 18th fairway. 

crescent - 1) the phase of the moon when it appears to have one concave and one convex edge: A waxing crescent means that a full moon is only about ten days away. 2) any shape resembling this shape of the moon. Also: crescentic. 

excrescence - an abnormal growth or disfiguring addition: The physician assured him that the excrescence on his neck was a benign mole, not a melanoma. Also: excrescency (excrescence), excrescent (growing abnormally; forming a disfiguring addition). [excresco, excrescere, excrevi, excretus - to grow up] 

increment - the fact or the amount of increase: The raise was expected, but the increment surprised everyone. Also: incremental, incrementalism (policy of making changes gradually), incrementalist. [incrementum, incrementi, n. - growth, increase] 

cruciatus, cruciatus, m. - torture

excruciating - extremely painful: To alleviate excruciating pain in terminally ill patients, some doctors now administer enough morphine to relieve the pain, even if this hastens the death of the patient. Also: excruciate (to torture), excruciation. [cruciamentum, cruciamenti, n. - torture; crucio, cruciare, cruciavi, cruciatus - to torture]

culmen, culminis, n. - top, summit

culminate - to reach its highest point; result in: Allegations of sexual abuse by the clergy proliferated, culminating in the decision by American bishops to remove from office any priest guilty of this crime. Also: culminant (culminating), culmination, culminative.

culpa, culpae, f. - fault, blame, error

culpable - blameworthy: The distraught townspeople hoped that a severe penalty would be imposed on the campers who, in culpable carelessness, started the fire that destroyed 40 homes. Also: culpability, culpableness. [culpo, culpare, culpavi, culpatus - to blame] 

exculpate - to free from blame; vindicate: The facts, when finally disclosed, exculpated the death-row inmate and incriminated his accusers. Also: exculpable, exculpation, exculpatory (tending to remove blame). [culpo, culpare, culpavi, culpatus - to blame, censure] 

inculpate - to charge with a fault; blame; accuse: Criminals sometimes try to avoid conviction and imprisonment by inculpating others. Also: inculpable, inculpability, inculpableness, inculpation, inculpatory. [culpatus, culpata, culpatum - blameworthy; culpo, culpare, culpavi, culpatus - to reproach, blame; inculpatus, inculpata, inculpatum - blameless]

cunctor, cumctari, cunctatus - delay, hesitate

cunctation - delay, tardiness: When it became evident that cunctation was reducing profits, the CEO became an obsessive timer. Also: cunctatious, cunctative (delaying), cunctator (procrastinator), cuntatory (delaying). [cunctabundus, cunctabunda, cunctabundum - delaying, lingering; cunctatio, cunctationis, f. - hesitation, delay; cunctator, cunctatoris, m. - one who delays or hesitates]

cupio, cupere, cupivi, cupitus - to wish, want, desire

concupiscence - excessive sexual desire; lust: What one person considers concupiscence another considers a healthy sexual desire; this is just one example of the disjunctive ethos of 20th-century America. Also: concupiscent (lustful). [concupisco, concupiscere, concupivi, concupitus - to desire eagerly] 

cupidity - an inordinate desire for wealth; avarice; greed: Cupidity, like any other inordinate desire, is probably incompatible with happiness; on the other hand, people who want little can be very happy. Also: cupidinous. [cupiditas, cupiditatis, f. - longing, desire] 

cura, curae, f. - care, anxiety

curate - especially in England, a clergyman who assists a pastor, rector, or vicar: Urgently summoned to a remote area, the pastor reluctantly left his inept curate in charge of the parish. Also: curacy (the position or work of a curate), curatic, curatical, curateship, curé (parish priest). [curo,curare, curavi, curatus - to care for, attend to] 

curator - a person in charge of a museum or library: The theft was reported to the curator, who in turn informed the police. Also: curatorial (having to do with a curator), curatorship, curatory (office of a curator). [curator, curatoris, m. - overseer, guardian] 

curro, currere, cucurri, cursurus - to run

concourse - 1) a running, flowing, or coming together; confluence: The city of Koblenz in Germany is situated at the concourse of two rivers, the Rhine and the Mozelle. 2) a crowd; 3) an open area where crowds gather. [concursus, concursus, m. - a running together, concourse] 

concur - 1) to be of the same opinion; to agree: With only two dissentions, the assembled faculty concurred with the recommendations of the ad hoc committee. 2) to happen at the same time; 3) to combine to produce an effect. [concurro, concurrere, concurri, concursurus - to run together, run to meet one another] 

concurrent - 1) happening at the same time: One should not assume that concurrent historical events have the same cause. 2) acting together cooperatively; 3) agreeing, in agreement. Also: concurrence (a concurring), concurrency (concurrence). [concurro, cf. concur] 

cursory - done hastily and superficially without attention to detail: A cursory reading of the essay disclosed a confused approach to the topic, rough transitions, and an abundance of typing errors. Also: cursoriness. 

discourse - (n.) 1) a formal speech or writing: Many readers have found in the discourses of antiquity an unexpected depth and beauty. 2) conversation; (v.) 1) to speak or write formally; 2) to converse. [discurro, discurrere, discurri, discursurus - to run about, roam; discursus, discursus, m. - a running about] 

discursive - 1) wandering from one subject to another; rambling; desultory: One critic praised the movie for its moral content and lively transitions; another criticized it as moralistic and unnecessarily discursive. 2) based on reason, not on intuition. Also: discursiveness, excursive (rambling, discursive), excursiveness. [discurro, cf. discourse; excurro, excurrere, excurri, excursurus - to run out (forth); excursus, excursus, m. - a running forth, excursion] 

incur - to fall into (something unpleasant); to bring (blame, punishment, etc.) upon oneself: In borrowing money for college, the young woman had incurred a debt that she now found onerous in the extreme. Also: incurrence (an incurring), incursion (invasion, attack; a running or flowing in), incursive (making incursions) [incurro, incurrere, incurri, incursurus - to run into; to attack; incursus, incursus, m. - attack] 

precursor - forerunner; harbinger: In the Bible, John the Baptist is presented as the precursor of the Messiah. Also: precursive, precursory (introductory; preliminary). [praecurro, praecurrere, praecurri, praecursurus - to go on ahead; praecursor, praecursoris, m. - forerunner] 

recur - 1) to occur again: The doctor insisted that the condition would recur if the patient did not continue to exercise and to avoid fatty foods. 2) to return (to) in thought or in speech; 3) to have recourse (to). Also: recurrence (reoccurrence), recurrent (occurring again or repeatedly), recursive (repeated). [recurro, recurrere, recurri, recursurus - to run back; recursus, recursus, m. - return, retreat] 

succor - (v.) to help, to aid: The salesman's intention was not to succor the flood victims but to sucker them into buying "retroactive flood insurance." (n.) help, aid. Also: succorable, succorer. [succurro, succurrere, succurri, succursurus - to go under; to hasten to help] 

cygnus, cygni, m. - swan

cygnet - a young swan: A female swan can have as many as seven cygnets, whose color in their first months of life is a grayish brown. [cygneus, cygnea, cygneum - of or belonging to a swan] 

Moutoux, Latin Derivatives 

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