Latin Derivatives
- A -


abdico, abdicare, abdicavi, abdicatus - to renounce, reject; to disown, disavow

abdicate - (tr.) to renounce (office or authority); (intr.) to renounce office or authority: Following the humiliating loss of some 300 ships to the Vandals, Majorian, one of the last of the Roman emperors, was forced to abdicate. Also: abdicable, abdicant (abdicating), abdication, abdicative, abdicator. [abdicatio, abdicationis, f. - renunciation; disavowal]

abduco, abducere, abduxi, abductus - to lead away, take away

abducent - Moving or drawing away from the axis of the body or one of its parts: Physiologists speak of abducent and adducent nerves and muscles. Also: abduce (to draw away). [duco, ducere, duxi, ductus - to lead]

aberro, aberrare, aberravi - to wander, go astray

aberration - The crimes against humanity perpetrated by the September 11 hijackers are horrible moral aberrations, denounced by the vast majority of people of the world regardless of their religion. 1) a deviating from what is normal or right: 2) a temporary mental irregularity. Also: aberrant, aberrance, aberrancy. [aberratio, aberrationis, f. - relief, diversion, escape]


abluo, abluere, ablui, ablutus - to wash away

ablution - a washing or cleansing, usually as a religious ritual: Baptism is an ablution which symbolizes and, according to many, effects a cleansing of sin. Also: abluent (a cleaning agent), ablutionary (having to do with an ablution).


aboleo, abolere, abolevi, abolitus - to destroy

abolish - to do away with, put an end to (a law or custom): Those who seek to abolish capital punishment argue that life imprisonment is an equally effective deterrent to murder. Also: abolishable, abolisher, abolishment, abolitionary, abolitionism (the principle of the abolition of slavery), abolitionist (in U.S. history, one who supported the abolition of slavery; one who supports the abolition of any law or custom) abolitionize (to convert to abolitionism). [abolesco, abolescere, abolevi - to perish; abolitio, abolitionis, f. - a removing]


abstemius, abstemia, abstemium - abstaining from intoxicating drinks

abstemious - moderate in eating and drinking: Abstemious people often live long lives. Also: abstemiousness.


acclivis, acclive - uphill, upwards, ascending

acclivity - an upward slope of ground, an ascent: The cross-country course was laid out in such a way that the acclivities were short and steep while the declivities were long and gradual. Also: acclivitous, acclivous. [acclivitas, acclivitatis, f. - ascent, rising grade, acclivity; ad (prep. w/ acc.) - to. towards; near; clivus, clivi, m. - slope, hill]


acer, acris, acre - sharp; fierce

acerbic - harsh in temper or words: His acerbic tongue got him into trouble with a hall monitor yesterday. Also: acerbity (harshness). [acerbitas, acerbitatis, f. - bitterness; acerbus, acerba, acerbum - bitter] 

acrid - 1) sharp to the taste, pungent; 2) sharp of temper or speech; caustic: Accused of embezzling state money, she cried witch hunt and launched an acrid denunciation of her accusers. Also: acridity (state or quality of being acrid), acridness (acridity). 

acrimonious - bitter and caustic in temper or language; acrid: "You can catch more flies with sugar than with honey," wrote the acrimonious youngster 100 times, without understanding why. Also: acrimony (bitterness or harshness in temper or language), acrimoniousness (acrimony). [acrimonia, acrimoniae, f. - sharpness] 

exacerbate - 1) to make worse: The ointment, thought to have curative properties, did little more than exacerbate the inflammation. 2) to irritate (someone's feelings). Also: exacerbation, acerbate (to make bitter). [acerbo, acerbare, acerbavi, acerbatus - to make bitter; exacerbo, exacerbare, exacerbavi, exacerbatus - to irritate, provoke] 


acutus, acuta, acutum - sharpened, pointed

acumen - keen insight: The fictional character Sherlock Holmes is known around the world for his criminological acumen. Also: acuminate (adj., pointed; v., to make sharp or pointed), acumination, acuminous (possessing acumen). [acumen, acuminis, n. - sharp point] 

acuity - sharpness, keenness: Like our mascot the eagle, our basketball players are admired and envied for their gracefulness, and their acuity of vision. [acuo, acuere, acui, acutus - to sharpen] 

adamas, adamantis, m. - very hard metal; steel

adamant - absolutely firm, unyielding in attitude or opinion despite opposition: Let’s not be so adamant that we miss the truth when it lights on the ends of our respective noses. Also: adamancy, adamantine (adamant)


adfabilis, adfabile - friendly, approachable, affable

affable - pleasant, friendly, cordial, easy to talk to: "There's a difference between 'affable' and 'laughable,' she screamed after him, "and you're the latter." Also: affability, affableness. [adfabilitas, adfabilitatis, f. - friendliness, affability] 


adfirmatio, adfirmationis, f. - affirmation, positive assertion

affirmation - 1) the assertion or declaration that something is true or exists; 2) confirmation of a law, a prior judgment, or a decision: The mayor interprets the lopsided vote as an affirmation of his bipartisan, minority-inclusive approach to government. Also: affirm, affirmable, affirmance, affirmant (person who affirms), affirmative (expressing agreement, positive), affirmer. [ad (prep. w/ acc.) - to, toward, near; adfirmo, adfirmare, adfirmavi, adfirmatus - to strengthen; firmator, firmatoris, m. - one who establishes or confirms; firmitas, firmitatis, f. - firmness; firmitudo, firmitudinis, f. - firmness; firmo, firmare, firmavi, firmatus - to strengthen, make firm; firmus, firma, firmum - firm, strong]

adiaceo, adiacere, adiacui - to lie at or by the side of, adjoin

adjacent - lying near; adjoining, bordering: Although she had lived there for almost a year, she still didn’t know the woman in the adjacent apartment. Also: adjacency. [ad (prep. w/ acc.) - to, toward, near; iaceo, iacere, iacui - to lie, be flat]

admoneo, admonere, admonui, admonitus - to remind, suggest; to ward

admonitory - serving to warn, warning: Mr. Baxter always adopts an admonitory tone of voice on the day before a test. Also: admonish, admonisher, admonishment, admonition, admonitor (admonisher), admonitorial. [ad (prep. w/ acc.) - to, toward, near; admonitio, admonitionis, f. - suggestion; admonitor, admonitoris, m. - an admonisher, one who reminds; admonitrix, admonitricis, f. - she who reminds; moneo monere, monui, monitus - warn, advise]

adsevero, adseverare, adseveravi, adseveratus - to assert, affirm

asseveration - emphatic assertion, a solemn declaration: What does it say about the American electorate when facts and issue-based asseverations are not as effective as demagoguery and slander? Also: asseverate (to assert emphatically, declare solemnly), asseverative, asseveratory. [adserveranter - emphatically; adseveratio, adseverationis, f. - an emphatic assertion; severus, severa, severum - serious, strict, stern]

adulatio, adulationis, f. - a fawning; flattery

adulation - excessive praise or admiration, servile flattery: In a democracy, even a capable president receives a large measure not only of adulation but, thanks to a free press and to opposition parties, of criticism as well. Also: adulate (to praise excessively, flatter), adulator, adulatory. [adulator, adulatoris, m. - sycophant; adulatorius, adulatoria, adulatorium - flattering; adulo, adulare - to fawn (upon), flatter; adulor, adulari, adulatus sum - to fawn (upon), flatter]


adulor, adulari, adulatus sum - to fawn, flatter

adulate - to praise excessively: “Praise others if you must,” she replied, “but adulate only me.” Also: adulation, adulator, adulatory. [adulatio, adulationis, f. - a fawning, flattery; adulator, adulatoris, m. - flatterer, sycophant; adulatorius, adulatoria, adulatorium - flattering] 


adultero, adulterare, adulteravi, adulteratus - to defile; to commit adultery

adulterate - (v.) to destroy purity or genuineness by adding a harmful or less valuable substance: Seeking to produce gold from lead, alchemists succeeded only in adulterating the lead. Also: adulterant (n., a substance used to adulterate; adj., adulterating), adulteration, adulterator, unadulterated. 

adverto, advertere, adverti, adversus - to turn towards

adversity - unfavorable fortune or fate; an unfortunate or calamitous condition or circumstance: Adversity often brings out the best in people. Also: adversative (adj., expressing antithesis or opposition; n., an adversative word or expression), adverseness, advert (to remark; to turn the attention). [adversus, adversa, adversum - hostile, opposed to; adversus or adversum - (adv.) opposite; (pres. w/ acc.) towards, opposite]


aegis, aegidis, f. - the shield of Jupiter; defense, protection

aegis - 1) protection, support; 2) sponsorship: To be eligible for a tuition waver at our high school, a foreign student must be under the aegis of a properly accredited agency.


aemulor, aemulari, aemulatus sum - to rival, strive to excel

emulate - to strive to equal or excel; to imitate with the intention of equaling or surpassing: She emulates her older sister, who has an open mind and a big heart. Also: emulation, emulatative, emulator, emulous (desirous of equaling or exceeding). [aemulatio, aemulationis, f. - rivalry; aemulus, aemula, aemulum - vying with, rivaling] 


aenigma, aenigmatis, n. - riddle

enigmatic - perplexing, inexplicable: In times of drought and deluge, many a pious farmer has pondered the enigmatic contingencies of weather. Also: enigma (a perplexing or inexplicable statement, matter, or person), enigmatical (enigmatic).

aequitas, aequitatis, f. - evenness; fairness

equity - fairness: Should we as a nation not strive for equity in the distribution of necessary commodities and services among the rich and the poor? Also: equitable, equitableness. [aequus, aequa, aequum - level; fair, just; like, equal]


aequus, aequa, aequum - level; fair, just; like, equal

egalitarian - one who believes that all people should have equal rights: Some people complain that America has lost its egalitarian focus; the poor, they say, do not have the same rights as the wealthy. Also: egalitarianism (the belief in equal rights for all). [aequo, aequare, aequavi, aequatus - to make even, make level; aequalis, aequale - equal, even; aequalitas, aequalitatis, f. - equality, evenness] 

equanimity - calmness, evenness of mind or temper: It would seem that the closer one gets to an unconditional acceptance of the world, the closer one gets to equanimity. Also: equanimous (having or showing equanimity), equanimousness. [aequanimitas, aequanimitatis, f. - impartiality; kindness] 

equilibrist - a performer who is skilled in tricks of balance like tightrope walking: Steelworkers who construct bridges and tall buildings are cut from the same mold as circus equilibrists. Also: equilibristic, equilibrate (to balance), equilibration, equilibrator. [aequilibritas, aequilibritatis, f. - equilibrium] 

equinox - one of two times annually when day and night are of equal length everywhere on the earth: From the vernal equinox in March until the autumnal equinox six months later, days are longer than nights in the northern hemisphere. Also: equinoctial (having to do with or occurring about the same time as the equinoxes). [aequinoctialis, aequinoctiale - relating to the equinox; aequinoctium, aequinocti, n. - equinox] 

equitable - just, fair: The Brazilian victory by "kick off" seemed an equitable outcome to a game in which Brazil had dominated Italy throughout. [aequitas, aequitatis, f. - evenness; fairness] 

equivocal - having two or more meanings; intentionally ambiguous: Puns are among the favorite toys of people who like to play with language; puns make the listener laugh (or groan) when he/she recognizes that what has been said is humorously (or grotesquely) equivocal. Also: equivocality, equivocalness, unequivocal, unequivocalness. [vox, vocis, f. - voice] 

equivocate - to use ambiguous words and expressions in order to deceive: "I will do what I can for you," the lawyer reminded his client, "but I cannot and will not equivocate." Also: equivocacy, equivocation, equivocator. [voco, vocare, vocavi, vocatus - call] 

inequitable - unfair, unjust: Two of the heirs complained bitterly about the inequitable distribution of the old man's wealth. Also: inequitableness, inequity (unfairness). [iniquus, iniqua, iniquum - unequal; unfair] 

iniquity - wickedness: No one is perfect, and no one has a monopoly of iniquity. Also: iniquitous., iniquitousness. [iniquitas, iniquitatis, f. - unevenness; injustice] 


aestas, aestatis, f. - summer

(a)estival - of or pertaining to summer: He liked the ocean, the palm trees, and the cool, clear summer days; still, he missed the estival verdancy of the Midwest. [aestivus, aestiva, aestivum - of summer; summer] 

(a)estivate - to spend the summer in dormancy: Scared out of her wits one June evening by a rattlesnake that she had nearly stepped on, she was heard by half the neighborhood to say that she wished the damned things would estivate. Also: (a)estivation, (a)estivator. [aestivo, aestivare, aestivavi, aestivatus - to pass the summer] 


aestuarium, aestuari, n. - ground covered by the sea at high tide; a part of a river up which the tide flows

estuary - 1) a place where a river’s current meets the sea’s tides; 2) an arm of the sea at the lower end of the river: The Nile has an elaborate system of estuaries. Also: estuarine (formed or found in an estuary), estuarial. [aestuo, aestuare, aestuavi, aestuatus - to rage, burn, seethe; to surge; aestuosus, aestuosa, aestuosum - very hot; agitated; aestus, aestus, m. - agitation; boiling; seething; surging (of the sea)]


ager, agri, m. - field

agrarian - having to do with agriculture or farmers: As a noun, "agrarian" means someone who promotes agrarian reforms. Also: agrarianism (a movement for the equal division of land and for the interests of farmers). [agrarius, agraria, agrarium - pertaining to the land] 

agronomy - science of crop production and of managing farmland: The rotation of crops for more efficient crop production has long been a tenet of agronomy. Also: agronomic, agronomical, agronomics (agronomy), agronomist. 

peregrination - traveling from place to place; wandering: Their two-month peregrination took them through 11 countries, from the north of Scandinavia to the south of Italy. Also: peregrinate (to travel), peregrinator, peregrine (foreign; migrating; also, a swift falcon), peregrinity. [peregrinatio, peregrinationis, f. - traveling abroad; peregrinor, peregrinari, peregrinatus sum - to travel abroad; to wander] 

aggrego, aggregare, aggregavi, aggregatus - add to a flock; attach, associate, bring together

aggregate - (adj.) total, combined; (n.) a sum of most of the particulars; total amount: While individual students may have floundered, the state test scores, in the aggregate, reflect improved effort on the part of the vast majority of students. (v.) to combine into a collection or mass. Also: aggregable, aggregateness, aggregatory, aggregation (a group or mass of separate persons or things; a collecting of separate persons or things), aggregational, aggregative (pertaining to or forming an aggregate; tending to aggregate). [grex, gregis, m. - herd, flock]


ago, agere, egi, actus - to do; drive

actuate - 1) to put into action; 2) to move to act: Always a risk taker, she was, in the final months of her life, actuated more and more by the desire to do what had never been done before. 

agency - action of someone or something; means (that by which something is done): Everyone agrees that he was promoted by the agency of his secretary, who seldom lets a week pass without praising him to his boss. 

exact - (v.) to demand and get; to force payment of: The hurricane exacted a heavy toll of the town: three dead and millions of dollars in property damage. Also: exactable, exacter, exaction, exactor. [exactio, exactionis, f. - a driving out; a demanding; exactus, exacta, exactum - precise] 

exigency -a situation demanding immediate attention; (pl.) urgent needs: A manager who eschews long-range planning and reacts simply to the exigencies of the day will soon have no business left to manage. Also: exigent (urgent). [exigo, exigere, exegi, exactus - to drive out; to require, demand] 

proactive - anticipatory; preparing for or intervening in an expected occurrence: Recycling is a proactive measure against the depletion of natural resources. [pro (prep. w/ abl.) - before, in front of; for]

prodigal - wasting money; exceedingly wasteful: Prodigal politicians are particularly unpopular today because of public awareness of the need to cut heavily into the federal debt. Also: prodigality (wastefulness). [prodigo, prodigere, prodegi, prodactus - to waste; prodigus, prodiga, prodigum - wasteful, extravagant] 

reactionary - (n.) in politics, an extreme conservative; (adj.) extremely conservative: Perception of an individual politician can, according to the political orientation of the observers, run the gamut from extreme liberal to reactionary. 

redact - 1) to prepare for publication; to edit: A careful comparison of her original manuscript with the redacted, published version convinced her to seek out a different publisher for her next novel. 2) to draw up (a statement, announcement, proclamation, etc.) Also: redaction, redactional, redactor. [redigo, redigere, redegi, redactus - to drive back; to lead back, bring back]


alacer, alacris - quick, lively

alacrity - 1) cheerful readiness or promptness: She treated all people with respect, welcomed friends at any hour of the day or night, encouraged and admonished her children, and performed household chores with alacrity. 2) liveliness. Also: alacritous. [alacritas, alacritatis, f. - quickness; eagerness] 


albus, alba, album - white

albumen - 1) the white of an egg: You can separate the two parts of the contents of an egg by passing the yolk back and forth from half shell to half shell and allowing the albumen to fall into a container. 2) the nutritive matter around the embryo in a seed. Also: albumenize (to treat with albumen), albumenization, albumin (any of a class of proteins occurring in the white of eggs, in milk, and in other animal and plant tissues and juices), albuminate (a compound derived from albumin), albuminous (of, resembling, or containing albumen or albumin). [albulus, albula, albulum - whitish]

alienus, aliena, alienum - belonging to another, another's

alien - (adj.) 1) foreign; 2) strange (not natural): Self-incrimination and despair being alien to him, he attributed the accident to bad luck and went on with his everyday business. (n.) 1) a foreigner; 2) an outsider. 

alienate - 1) to transfer ownership (of property); 2) to make indifferent or unfriendly; to estrange: Her bizarre behavior served only to alienate her friends and infuriate her enemies. Also: alienable (that can be transferred), alienation (an alienating or being alienated), alienative, alienator. [alieno, alienare, alienavi, alienatus - to make something another’s; to transfer; to banish; alienatio, alienationis, f. - transfer, surrender; separation] 

inalienable (unalienable) - that may not be taken away: According to the Declaration of Independence, life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness are among the inalienable rights of every human being. Also: inalienability, inalienableness. [alieno, cf. alienate


alo, alere, alui, alitus - to nourish

alimony - an allowance paid by one spouse to the other after legal separation or divorce: Does alimony stop after the recipient of the alimony remarries? Also: aliment (food), alimentary, alimentation (nourishment), alimentative, alimentativeness. [alimentarius, alimentaria, alimentarium - pertaining to food; alimentum, alimenti, n. - food]


alter, altera, alterum - the other (of two), second

altercation - heated argument; quarrel: The unfortunate altercation left both friends with bruised egos. Also: altercate (to quarrel). [altercatio, altercationis, f. - debate, dispute; altercor, altercari, altercatus sum - to debate, quarrel] 

altruist - someone who is concerned about and works for the welfare of others: If unselfishness is the yardstick of happiness, then altruists are among the happiest people. Also: altruism (unselfish devotion to the welfare of others), altruistic. 

unalterable (inalterable) - unable to be changed: He said his will was firm and his decision unalterable. Also: alter (to change), alterable, alterability, alterableness, alterant (causing an alteration; something that causes an alteration), alteration (process of changing; a change), alterative (tending to alter), unalterability (inalterability), unalterableness (inalterableness), unaltered. 


alternus, alterna, alternum - one after the other, alternate

subaltern - (adj.) of lower rank, subordinate; (n.) a subordinate: Old men make wars; their subalterns, usually young men, fight them. [sub (prep. w/ acc. and abl.) - under] 


altus, alta, altum - high; deep

altimeter - instrument for measuring height: A glance at the altimeter let the pilot know that he was flying dangerously low. Also: altigraph (an altimeter that records altitude automatically), altimetry (the science of measuring altitudes). 

exalt - 1) to raise in rank, honor, quality, etc.: Generosity, joyfulness, patience, truthfulness, humility, loyalty--these things exalt a person far beyond what all the money in the world can do. 2) to praise, honor. Also: exalter, exaltation, exaltedness. 


ambiguus, ambigua, ambiguum - wavering, uncertain, doubtful

ambiguous - 1) having more than one meaning: The English conjunction "or" is ambiguous: it can be inclusive, as in "Each participant must bring a pen or a pencil," (it's OK to bring either, even both) or exclusive, as in "Did you buy that dress last year or this year?" (only one answer is correct). 2) doubtful, uncertain. Also: ambiguity, ambiguousness. [ambigo, ambigere - to hesitate, doubt; ambiguitas, ambiguitatis, f. - ambiguity; ambo, ambae, ambo - both] 


ambio, ambire, ambivi, ambitus - to go round, to go about

ambiance - mood or atmosphere of a locale or a surrounding area: For their 25th wedding anniversary, they chose a restaurant with an ambiance of elegance and intimacy. Also: ambient, ambience (ambiance). [ambitio, ambitionis, f. - a striving for favor or honors; ambitiosus, ambitiosa, ambitiosum - seeking popularity, honors, favor, etc.; ambitus, ambitus, m. - a going round, revolution]


ambrosia, ambrosiae, f. - food of the gods

ambrosial - especially delicious or fragrant: The ambrosial smell of fresh bread, pastries, and coffee invited passers-by to come in and enjoy a morning snack. Also: ambrosia (the food of the gods; something especially delicious or fragrant).

ambulo, ambulare, ambulavi, ambulatus - to walk

amble - (v.) to walk in a relaxed, leisurely manner: On summer evenings the townspeople ambled along the downtown sidewalks though not a store or business was open. (n.) a relaxed, leisurely walk. Also: ambler. 

ambulatory - 1) capable of walking: The ambulatory patients are encouraged to wander along the verdant paths surrounding the hospital. 2) having to do with walking. Also: ambulate (to walk), ambulant (walking), ambulation  (walking), ambulator, ambulatory. [ambulatio, ambulationis, f. - a walk; ambulator, ambulatoris, m. - one who walks about] 

circumambulate - to walk around: The patients are encouraged to go outside and circumambulate the building. Also: circumambulation (a walking around; a roundabout process), circumambulator, circumambulatory (having to do with circumambulation). [circum (prep. w/ acc.) - around] 

preamble - a preliminary statement; an introduction, especially to a speech or a writing: The preamble to the Constitution of the United States begins with the words, "We the people of the United States." 

perambulate - to walk through, over, or around: The prefect was accustomed to perambulating the corridors each evening between seven and nine, at which time the students were expected to study quietly in their rooms. Also: perambulation, perambulator, perambulatory. [perambulo, perambulare, perambulavi, perambulatus - to walk through, pass through] 


amicus, amici, m. - friend

amiable - having a friendly disposition, peaceable: Friends and amiable neighbors helped him through the months of unemployment. Also: amiability, amiableness. 

amicable - friendly (said of actions): Despite the high stakes, they quickly reached an amicable settlement. Also: amicability, amicableness. 

amity - peace and friendship: A principal goal of international diplomacy ought to be amity among nations. 


amo, amare, amavi, amatus - to love

amatory - causing or showing love, especially sexual love: His amatory verses surprised and pleased her. Also: amatorial (amatory). 

angustus, angusta, angustum - narrow

anguish - Also: (n.) acute distress or suffering: Who can imagine the anguish of parents who lose a child? (v.) 1) to inflict with distress or suffering; 2) to suffer or feel distress. [angustiae, angustiarum, f. pl. - narrowness; angusto, angustare - to make narrow; angustum, angusti, n.- a narrow place]


animus, animi, m. - mind; spirit; courage

animadversion - unfavorable criticism; censure: Let's cooperate when we can and relegate animadversion to the editorial pages. [adverto, advertere, adverti, adversus - to turn to or towards] 

animosity - strong dislike or hatred: The animosity of the people could not be suppressed, and they spoke out privately and publicly against the repressive government. Also: animus (animosity; underlying purpose, intention). [animosus, animosa, animosum - bold, spirited] 

pusillanimous - cowardly, faint-hearted; timid: Boxing is not a sport for the pusillanimous and those who still have a functioning brain. Also: pusillanimity (cowardliness; timidity). [pusillus, pusilla, pusillum - tiny, puny] 

unanimity - complete agreement: To achieve unanimity, the delegates who had voted against the candidate-elect in  earlier rounds voted with the victorious majority in the end. Also: unanimous (in complete agreement), unanimousness. [unanimitas, unanimitatis, f. - unanimity; unanimus, unanima, unanimum - of one mind, agreeing] 


annus, anni, m. - year

annals - 1) written account of events year by year; 2) historical records: Nowhere in the annals of mankind can one find a quantitative growth in knowledge equal to that of the twentieth century. 

annuity - an investment that provides a fixed yearly income: Teachers would be well advised to invest early in a tax-sheltered annuity. 

biennial - 1) lasting two years: Turnips and beets are biennial plants, but most of them are harvested during the first year of their life cycle. 2) occurring every two years. Also: biennium (period of two years), perennial (having a life cycle of more than two years; continuing through many years), perenniality. [biennium, bienni, n. - two years] 

superannuated - 1) incapacitated or retired because of age: The ward was filled to capacity with superannuated veterans. 2) obsolete. Also: superannuate (to allow to retire because of old age; to set aside because of old age), superannuation (a superannuating or being superannuated). [super (prep. w/ acc.) - over, above] 


ante, adv. and prep. with acc. - before (of time or place)

antediluvian - existing or occurring before the Great Flood: Cane and Abel are antediluvian biblical figures. Also: postdiluvian (existing or occurring after the Great Flood) [diluvium, diluvi, n. - flood, deluge] 


antiquus, -a, -um - former, ancient, old-fashioned, old

antiquity - 1) great age: Recognizing the urn as an object of unusual antiquity, she cautiously asked about its price.  2) period of history before 476 A.D.; 3) (pl.) things from long ago. [antiquitas, antiquitatis, f. - ancient times, antiquity; antiquitus, antiquita, antiquitum - former, ancient] 

antiquated - out of date; obsolete: Unappreciated by his younger colleagues, who considered his methods and conclusions antiquated, the old chemist retired. Also: antiquate (to cause to be out of date), antequatedness,  antiquation (the state of being out of date or the action of making out of date). 

antiquary - someone who collects or studies ancient objects: For the objects of their professional interest, antiquaries, like collectors generally, try to pay less than the market seems to demand, and to get more than the market seems to allow. Also: antiquarian  (adj., having to do with antiquities or antiquaries; n., an antiquary). [antiquarius, antiquaria, antiquarium - belonging to ancient times; antiquarius, antiquari, m. (antiquaria, antiquariae, f.) - antiquary] 


aperio, aperire, aperui, apertus - to uncover, open

aperture - an opening, hole: When operating a camera manually, one must know that a higher f-stop means that the aperture of the camera is smaller; in fact, the square of an f-stop is inversely proportional to the amount of light admitted. Also: apertural, apertured.

apex, apicis, m. - summit, top

apex - the highest point; vertex: Does one divide a triangle into equal areas by drawing a straight line from the apex to the midpoint of the opposite side?

apis, apis, f. - bee

apiary - a shed or house for beehives; group of beehives: Having misunderstood the word apiary, Johnny went out into his uncle’s field and lifted the top off what he thought was a giant birdhouse. Also: apian (of or pertaining to bees), apiarian (having to do with beekeeping), apiarist (one who keeps bees).

appareo, apparere, apparui, appariturus - to appear, become visible

apparition - 1) a ghost; 2) something strange or unexpected that becomes visible: One wonders how many supernatural and extraterrestrial apparitions are actually hallucinations. 3) the act of appearing: Also: apparitional. [apparitio, apparitionis, f. - attendance; a waiting on, service]

appello, appellare, appellavi, appellatus - to call, name

appellate - of or pertaining to appeals; capable of being appealed to: The lawyer is optimistic about her client's chances in the appellate court. 

appellant - a person who appeals, especially someone who appeals a decision to a higher court: TV cameras rolled as the appellant with his retinue of lawyers climbed the stairs of the Supreme Court to begin what was sure to become a landmark case in American jurisprudence. 

appellation - 1) the name by which someone or something is called; nickname: Basketball fans insisted on saddling their hero with the appellation "moose." 2) the act of naming. Also: appellative (n., designation; adj., designating), appellativeness. [appellatio, appellationis f. - addressing; appeal; name] 


apprehendo, apprehendere, apprehendi, apprehensus - to seize

apprehensive - 1) fearful that something might happen: Many parents are apprehensive for the safety of their children in a world of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. 2) quick to understand, perceptive. Also: apprehend (to seize; to perceive, understand intuitively), apprehender, apprehensible (able to be understood), apprehensibility, apprehension, apprehensiveness. [prehendo, prehendere, prehendi, prehensus - to seize; prendo, prendere, prendi, prensus - to seize]


aptus, apta, aptum - fit, suitable

adaptability - the power to change easily and fit in different situations; the ability to adjust to different conditions: Adaptability is important to the success of individuals and to the survival of entire species. Also: adapt, adaptable, adaptableness, adapter, adaptation, adaptional, adaptive, adaptivity, adaptor. [adapto, adaptare, adaptavi, adaptatus - to adapt, fit to] 

adept - highly skilled: If you are adept in a foreign language or two, you might want to consider a career in international business. Also: adeptness. [adipiscor, adipisci, adeptus sum - to attain to] 

apt - 1) appropriate; 2) quick to learn; gifted: She has already proven herself to be an apt student; as soon as she works through some personal problems, her grades will again reflect her abilities. 3) likely. Also: aptitude, appitudinal, aptness. 

inept - 1. not suitable, out of place: Inept comments work well if your goal is to alienate yourself from friends and fellow workers. 2. without skill; awkward. Also: ineptitude, ineptness. [ineptus, inepta, ineptum - unsuitable, inappropriate, tasteless] 


aqua, aquae, f. - water

aquamarine - a transparent, pale bluish-green precious stone: Unlike aquamarine, emerald is bright green. [mare, maris, n. - sea; marinus, marina, marinum - of the sea] 

aqueduct - 1) a conduit for bringing water from afar; 2) a bridgelike structure for carrying water: Not only the city of Rome but also many cities in Roman territory had aqueducts, some of which are still standing today; one of the most famous is at Nîmes, France. [duco, ducere, duxi, ductus - to lead] 

aqueous - 1) of, like, or containing water; watery: The chemistry students had to analyze several aqueous solutions. 2) formed by the action of water. Also: aqueousness. 

aquifer - an underground layer of rock or sand containing water: A vast aquifer at a depth of only fifty feet made the rural area an attractive site for new housing. Also: aquiferous (of or pertaining to an aquifer). [fero, ferre, tuli, latus - to bear, carry] 


aquila, aquilae, f. - eagle

aquiline - hooked like an eagle’s beak: Human noses come in all shapes, from flat to bulbous to aquiline. 2) of or pertaining to an eagle or eagles. Also: aquilinity. [aquilifer, aquiliferi, m. - an eagle-bearer, standard-bearer; aquilinus, aquilina, aquilinum - of or pertaining to an eagle or eagles]

arbiter, arbitri, m. - a spectator, witness

arbiter - 1) a person chosen to judge a dispute; 2) someone with full authorization to judge or decide: In a theocracy, the arbiter of morality and the arbiter of legality is one and the same. Also: arbitrable (capable of being decided by an arbiter), arbitral, arbitrament (the act of deciding or the decision of an arbiter) , arbitrary (not decided by rule or law; capricious, unreasonable), arbitrariness, arbitrate (to act as an arbiter; to submit to arbitration), arbitration (the settlement of a dispute by an arbiter), arbitrational, arbitrationist, arbitrative, arbitrator (arbiter), arbitress (a female arbiter). [arbitra, arbitrae, f. - a female witness; arbitrium, arbitri, n. - judgment, decision; arbitror, arbitrari, arbitratus sum - to think, consider; to witness; to testify]


arbitror, arbitrari, arbitratus sum - to judge, think; to testify

arbitrary - 1) based solely on one's own wishes, not restricted by reason or rules: Some people hold that, if there is a deity, he (or she) must be criticized for the arbitrary allotment of good and evil in the world. 2) tyrannical; 3) unreasonable, unsupported. Also: arbitrariness. 

arbitrate - (intrans.) 1) to act as a chosen mediator; to settle a dispute; 2) to submit to a mediator for settlement; (trans.) 1) to submit to or settle by means of a mediator; 2) to decide as an appointed mediator: When the President judges that a strike is seriously damaging the common good of the nation, he appoints someone to arbitrate the dispute. Also: arbiter (person authorized to decide), arbitrament, also spelled arbitrament (arbitration; decision made by an arbiter), arbitration, arbitrational, arbitrationist, arbitrative, arbitrator, arbitratorship. 

arbitrator - person authorized to decide a dispute: When talks stalled, an arbitrator was appointed to weigh the arguments of both sides and expedite an agreement. Also: arbiter (person with full power to decide or judge), arbitrable, arbitral, arbitrament (arbitration; decision made by an arbiter), arbitration, arbitrational, arbitrative, arbitratorship. [arbiter, arbitri, m. - witness; arbitra, arbitrae, f. - female witness; arbitratus, arbitratus, m. - choice, decision; arbitrium, arbitri, n. - judgment, decision; authority]

arbor, arboris, m. - tree

arboreal - 1) living in trees: Prehensile tails serve arboreal animals well. 2) of or like a tree. Also: arborescent (like a tree in growth and shape), arboreous (full of trees; arboreal; arborescent). [arboreus, arborea, arboreum - of a tree; branching] 

arboretum - a place where trees and shrubs are grown for exhibition or study: As a summer job he trimmed eucalyptus trees in the university's arboretum. Also: arborist (one who studies or cultivates trees).


arcanus, arcana, arcanum - secret; hidden

arcane - understood by very few; obscure: When someone says, "It doesn’t take a brain surgeon . . ." or "It doesn’t take a rocket scientist . . . ," he is expressing a popular belief that brain surgery and rocket science are arcane disciplines, beyond the comprehension of most mortals. Also: arcanist (one who claims to have secret knowledge regarding the making of porcelain), arcana (profound secrets). [arca, arcae, f. - place for safe-keeping; arcano (adv.) - secretly; arceo, arcere, arcui - enclose, shut in; protect, keep safe]


arceo, arcere, arcui - to shut in, enclose

coercion - act of compelling someone by force or intimidation: She tried logical argumentation, emotional appeal, cajolery, and when all else failed, coercion, all to no avail; when her little sister had made up her mind to refuse her a favor, that favor no longer existed in the realm of the possible. Also: coerce, coercible, coercionary, coercionist. [coerceo, coercere, coercui - to shut in, enclose; coercitio, coercitionis, f. - a confining, a restraining] 


ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus - to burn; to glow

ardent - 1. characterized by intense feeling or great enthusiasm; passionate: As ardent theatergoers, they contribute generously to the annual Fund for the Arts. 2. burning; glowing. Also: ardency, ardentness, ardor (passion; enthusiasm). [ardens, ardentis - burning; glowing, ardent; ardesco, ardescere, arsi - to take fire, blaze up; ardor, ardoris, m. - a burning; eagerness, ardor] 


arduus, ardua, arduum - steep; difficult

arduous - difficult, laborious; requiring much energy: If you find pulling weeds arduous, gardening is probably not for you. Also: arduousness. [arduum, ardui, n. - steep place]

(h)arena, (h)arenae, f. - sand; sandy ground; arena

arenaceous - 1) sandy; 2) having a sandy habitat: Remembering how his father used to add sand to the soil of his garden where the spinach was to be planted, he asked his botany teacher if spinach is considered an arenaceous plant. Also: arena, arenation (application of hot sand to the body), arenic (having to do with an arena), arenicolous (living in sandy places), arenose (full of sand; sandy). [(h)arenaria, (h)arenariae, f. - sand pit; (h)arenarius, (h)arenaria, (h)arenarium - pertaining to sand; sandy; (h)arenosus, (h)arenosa, (h)arenosum - full of sand; sandy]

argentum, argenti, n. - silver

argentine - pertaining to, made of, containing, or resembling silver: Despite its argentine luster, mica contains no silver. Also: argent (like silver), argental (of or pertaining to silver; containing or resembling silver), argenteous (silvery), argentiferous (yielding silver; silver-bearing), argentite (a silver sulfide), argentous (containing univalent silver). [argentarius, argentaria, argentarium - of or pertaining to silver or to money; argentatus, argentata, argentatum - plated with silver; argenteus, argentea, argenteum - of silver]

aridus, arida, aridum - dry, parched

arid - 1. receiving very little rainfall; extremely dry: Because they impede the movement of rain clouds, mountain ranges are often verdant on one side and arid on the other. 2. dry figuratively. Also: aridity, aridness, aridification. 


arma, armorum, n. pl. - arms, weapons

armada - a large fleet of warships: The famous Spanish Armada, believed by many to be invincible, was defeated by the British in 1588. [armo, armare, armavi, armatus - to arm, equip with arms] 

armistice - a temporary agreement to stop fighting, often followed by a signed peace treaty: Veterans Day was previously called Armistice Day in commemoration of the end of fighting in World War I. 

gendarme - 1) a police officer, especially a French police officer; 2) any police officer: If you get lost in Europe, ask a friendly gendarme for directions. 

aro, arare, aravi, aratus - to plow; to cultivate

arable - able to be plowed and cultivated; suitable for farming: In the mountains of Switzerland, almost every square foot of arable land is used either to grow crops or to graze animals. Also: arability.

ars, artis, f. - skill; art; knowledge

artisan - someone skilled in applied arts; craftsman: In preparation for weekend arts and crafts shows, many artisans arrive on Friday evening and set up their displays. Also: artisanal, artisanship. [artifex, artificis, m. - (adj.) skilled; (n.) craftsman; master of an art; artificiosus, artificiosa, artificiosum - skillful; artificium, artifici, n. - craft; art]

articulo, articulare, articulavi, articulatus - to speak distinctly

articulate - (adj.) 1) spoken distinctly; 2) able to express oneself clearly and fluently: It is not enough for a speaker to be highly articulate; he or she must also speak logically and interestingly. 3) jointed; (v.) 1) to speak distinctly; 2) to fit together in a joint. Also: articular (pertaining to the joints), articulable, articulateness, articulative, articulation, articulator, articulatory. [articulus, articuli, m. - a small joint] 

inarticulate - 1) lacking the ability to express oneself clearly and effectively; 2) not like regular speech, unintelligible: The child was so excited that she uttered only inarticulate sounds. 3) not jointed. Also: articulable, articular (pertaining to the joints), articulate, articulateness, articulative, articulation, articulator, articulatory. [articulatim - distinctly; articulus, articuli, m. - a small joint] 

ascendo, ascendere, ascendi, ascensus - to climb (up), ascend

ascendancy, also spelled ascendency - controlling influence; supremacy; domination: St. Augustine helped to secure the ascendancy of the Roman papacy with the statement: "Roma locuta est, causa finita est." Also: ascendable, also spelled ascendible; ascendance, also spelled ascendence (ascendancy); ascendant, also spelled ascendent (ruling; rising). 


astutus, astuta, astutum - clever; cunning

astute - 1) showing a good mind, sagacious: His astute generalizations astonished most listeners, who had not expected sagacity from the mouth of a wrestling announcer. 2) clever, shrewd. Also: astuteness. [astutia, astutiae, f. - adroitness; cunning] 


atavus, atava, atavum - a grandfather of a grandfather; an ancestor

atavistic - reverting to a primitive type, resembling a remote ancestor: In his opinion, his friends’ propensity for camping was atavistic, a throwback to the time of the cavemen. Also: atavic (atavistic), atavism (reversion to an earlier type or characteristic; resemblance to a remote ancestor), atavist, atavistically. [ avus, avi, m. - grandfather]

atrox, atrocis - terrible, horrible

atrocity - 1) the quality or state of being extremely wicked or cruel; 2) an extremely wicked or cruel act: Human sacrifice, performed daily by the Aztecs to appease the sun god, was considered an atrocity by the invading Cortes, who in turn mercilessly massacred the Aztecs, no less an atrocity for its dedication to the Christian deity. Also: atrocious, atrociousness. [atrocitas, atrocitatis, f. - frightfulness; barbarity]

attenuo, attenuare, attenuavi, attenuatus - to make thin, lessen

attenuate - (v) 1) to weaken: Depression attenuates passion and desire, including the desire to remain alive. 2) to make thin; 3) to become thin; (adj.) weakened. Also: attenuant (a medicine that thins the blood), attenuation, attenuator. [attenuatio, attenuationis, f. - a lessening; tenuis, tenue - slender, thin; tenuitas, tenuitatis, f. - thinness, slenderness]

auctor, auctoris m. - maker, author

authorize -1) to give official approval to; grant permission for: The strike was authorized by the union members, who voted overwhelmingly to walk off the job at midnight. 2) to sanction; make legal. Also: authorizable, authorization, authorizer, unauthorized. 


auctoritas, auctoritatis, f. - authority, influence, prestige

authoritarian - favoring, characterized by, or enforcing unquestioning obedience to authority, like that of a dictator: The economic productivity of authoritarian countries has been unimpressive; on the other hand, their athletes have been among the best in the world. Also: authoritarianism (the principle of unquestioning obedience to authority). 


audacia, audaciae, f. - daring, boldness

audacious - recklessly bold; daring: Enterprising and audacious, the youngster made his way in the world despite his physical handicaps. Also: audaciousness, audacity (reckless boldness; rude boldness). [audax, audacis - bold, daring] 


audio, audire, audivi, auditus - to hear

audit - 1) to examine business accounts officially; 2) to attend a class as a listener, not for credit. Fearing that his GPA would suffer if he took the course for credit, he decided to audit. Also: auditable, auditor (person who examines accounts; one who audits a class). [auditio, auditionis, f. - listening; rumor] 

auditory - of or pertaining to hearing: Extremely sensitive to auditory distractions, the poor fellow had to wear ear plugs when taking tests. Also: audit, auditable, auditor, auditorial, auditorium, auditorship. [audientia, audientiae, f. - hearing, listening; auditio, auditionis, f. - hearing, listening; auditor, auditoris, m. - a listener; auditorium, auditori, n. - a lecture room; auditus, auditus, m. - sense of hearing]

inaudible - unable to be heard: Dogs and other animals can hear very high sounds that are inaudible to the human ear. Also: audial (pertaining to the sense of hearing), audible, audibility, audibleness, inaudibility. 


aufero, auferre, abstuli, ablatus - to carry away, remove

ablation - 1) removal of an organ or of an abnormal growth by surgery; 2) reduction in the volume of glacial ice: Accelerated glacial ablation is one indicator of global warming. 3) erosion of the protective surface of a spacecraft. Also: ablate, ablator. [ab (prep. w/ abl.) - from, away from; by; fero, ferre, tuli, latus - to bear, carry]


augeo, augere, auxi, auctus - to increase

augment - to increase; to make greater; to enlarge: By building the largest castle on the Rhine, the prince hoped to augment his prestige, which had been dealt a severe blow when the Emperor declined his invitation to visit. Also: augmentable, augmentation, augmentative. 

august - inspiring admiration and reverence; venerable: The matter will be taken up by Parliament, when that august body reconvenes in September. Also: augustness. [augustus, augusta, augustum - sacred; majestic] 


auguror, auguari, auguratus sum - to predict, foretell

augur - (n.) soothsayer, fortuneteller; (trans.) predict, foretell; (intrans.) be a sign: They believed that the appearance from one day to the next of beautiful meadow flowers augured well for the success of their expedition. Also: augury (practice of predicting from various omens; sign, omen). [augur, auguris, m. and f. - soothsayer, seer; auguro, augurare, auguravi, auguratus - to act as an augur, take auguries for) 

inaugurate - 1) to make a formal beginning of: The World Series between the National League (formed in 1876) and the American League (formed in 1900) was inaugurated in 1903 with a best-of-nine-games series. 2) to install in office ceremoniously. Also: inaugural (adj., of or pertaining to an inauguration; n., a speech given at the beginning of a term of office), inauguration, inaugurator. [inauguro, inaugurare, inauguravi, inauguratus - to take omens for the purpose of making predictions, to practice augury; to install, consecrate] 


aureus, aurea, aureum - golden

aureole - 1) a ring of light encircling the head or body, as in pictures of saints: Renaissance painters eliminated the aureole from their paintings of religious scenes because they believed that man's attention should be directed to the earth. 2) the glow around the sun, especially during an eclipse or in a mist; corona. [aureolus, aureola, aureolum - golden; aurum, auri, n. - gold] 

auriferous - containing or yielding gold: In 1848 gold-hungry men rushed from far and wide to the auriferous banks of the Sacramento River. Also: aureate (golden, gilded). [aurarius, auraria, aurarium - golden; auraria, aurariae, f. - gold mine; auratus, aurata, auratum - covered with gold; aureolus, aureola, aureolum - golden; auricomus, auricoma, auricomum - golden-haired; aurifer, aurifera, auriferum - gold-bearing; aurifex, aurificis, m. - goldsmith; aurifodina, aurifodinae, f. - gold mine; auriger, aurigera, aurigerum - gold-bearing; aurum, auri, n. - gold]


auris, auris, f. - ear

auricular - of, pertaining to, or near the ear; of or pertaining to the sense of hearing: Because the Eustachian tubes of babies slope less than those of adults, babies experience more auricular blockage than do their elders. Also: auricle (outer part of the ear), auriculate (having ears). [airicula, auriculae, f. - lobe of the ear; auritus, aurita, auritum - having large ears]

aurora, aurorae, f. - dawn

auroral - of or like the dawn: The distant crow of a rooster broke the auroral silence. Also: aurora borealis (northern lights)

auspex, auspicis, m. - a diviner

auspices - 1) patronage, sponsorship: Many a high-school student has spent an extended period of time in a foreign country under the auspices of an organization like Youth for Understanding. 2) favorable sign; prognostication. Also: auspex (a priest in ancient Rome who made predictions based on signs), auspicate (to begin with a ceremony for bringing good luck), auspice(s) (support, sponsorship; an omen, a sign), auspicial (having to do with auspices), auspicious (promising success), auspiciousness. [auspicato (adv.) - in a fortunate hour; auspicor, auspicari, auspicatus sum - to take the auspices; auspicium, auspici, n. - divination (attempting to foretell the future) from the flight of birds]


auspicium, auspici, n. - divination (attempting to foretell the future) from the flight of birds

auspicious - promising success, favorable: She awoke to sunshine and mild temperatures--an auspicious beginning of the most important day of her life. Also: auspex (a priest in ancient Rome who made predictions based on signs), auspicate (to begin with a ceremony for bringing good luck), auspice(s) (support, sponsorship; an omen, a sign), auspicial (having to do with auspices), auspiciousness, inauspicious, inauspiciousness. [auspex, auspicis, m. - a diviner; auspicato (adv.) - in a fortunate hour; auspicor, auspicari, auspicatus sum - to take the auspices] 


austerus, austera, austerum - harsh; strict; gloomy

austere - 1) uncompromisingly strict (in morals); 2) severe (in manner or appearance); 3) without excess, simple: At the age of eighteen he forsook the austere lifestyle of his Amish parents and moved to the big city, where he hoped to acquire such luxuries as car, TV, and telephone. Also: austereness, austerity. 


auxilium, auxili, n. - help, aid; auxilia, auxiliorum, n. pl. - auxiliary troops, reinforcements

auxiliary - assisting, supporting (often in a subordinate capacity): Auxiliary forces were available, but the general chose to keep them in reserve. [auxiliaris, auxiliare - helping, assisting] 


avaritia, avaritiae, f. - inordinate deside, greed, avarice

avarice - an inordinate desire for money or property; greed: It is one thing to discern avarice in those wealthier than us, and quite another to look for it in ourselves. Most of us in the United States are far wealthier than the average person in most other countries. Also: avaricious, avariciousness. [avarus, avara, avarum - greedy, covetous] 


avis, avis, f. - bird

aviary - a cage or building for keeping large numbers of birds: The most interesting aviaries are those that interpose no barriers between the birds and their human visitors. Also: avian (of or pertaining to birds). 


avunculus, avunculi, m. - maternal uncle

avuncular - of or pertaining to an uncle; characteristic of an uncle: Who gives avuncular advice to whom if the uncle is younger than the nephew? Also: avuncularity

Moutoux, Latin Derivatives

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