~ Lesson 1 ~
1. superfluous- more than enough: If you were constructing an artificial language, like Esperanto, you would restrict the rules of grammar to a necessary few, and you would avoid superfluous words, i.e., synonyms. [fluo, -ere, fluxi, fluxus - to flow; superfluus, -a, -um - overflowing; superfluous] Also: superfluity 2. dilapidated - falling to pieces: Their life's focus destroyed, descendants of the proud race of hunters drink and watch TV in tiny, dilapidated houses in rural Minnesota. [lapis, -idis, m. - stone; dilapido, -are, -avi, -atus - to demolish] Also; dilapidate, dilapidation 3. mundane - 1) earthly, worldly (of this world, not heavenly): "I prefer to discuss mundane matters," she said with a smile, "so that I have a chance of knowing what Iím talking about." 2) common, ordinary. [mundus, -i, m. - world; mundanus, -i, m. - a citizen of the world] Also: mundaneness, mundanity 4. timidity - a lack of self-confidence; shyness; a fearfulness when confronted with something new or uncertain: When his timidity had reached the point of speechlessness, his parents sought professional help. [timidus, -a, -um - timid; timiditas, -atis, f. - fearfulness, timidity] Also: timid, timidness 5. dubious - 1) doubtful (feeling doubt); 2) uncertain; in doubt: Believing the casualty report to have been based on dubious evidence, the general refused to sign it. 3) questionable; arousing doubt. [dubito, -are, -avi, -atus - to doubt; to hesitate; dubius, -a, -um - doubtful, uncertain] Also: dubiousness, dubitable 6. nomenclature - a set of names used in a specific discipline: Unfamiliarity with the relevant nomenclature precludes success in a course like biology. [nomen, -inis, n. - a name; nomenclator, -oris, m. - one who announces names] 7. unavailing - futile; useless; ineffectual: Frustrated by their unavailing efforts, the group met less and less often and eventually stopped meeting altogether. [valeo, -ere, -ui, -iturus - to be well; to be strong; to be valid] Also: avail 8. abrogate - to abolish (a law, etc.); to do away with; to make null and void: Hoping to appease an irate populace, the aging dictator abrogated two of the most repressive regulations. [rogo, -are, -avi, -atus - to ask; abrogo, -are, -avi, -atus - to repeal; to remove] Also: abrogation, abrogative 9. officious - meddlesome; too ready to give advice; minding other people's business: Finally, when her officious secretary had interrupted for the umpteenth time that day, she said, "If you'll do your work, I'll be able to do mine." [officium, -i, n. - duty; officiosus, -a, -um - obliging, dutiful] Also: officiousness 10. vertigo - a feeling of spinning or tilting, accompanied by a sensation that one is losing equilibrium or consciousness: Patients often complain of vertigo; in some cases, physicians cannot determine the cause. [verto, -ere, verti, versus - to turn; vertigo, -inis, f. - a turning around, whirling; dizziness] Also: vertiginous 11. vivacious - lively, animated: Vivacious as an entertainer, he is said to be withdrawn and languid in his private life. [vivax, -acis - long-lived, enduring; lively] Also: vivacious, vivaciousness, vivacity 12. emissary - someone sent on a specific mission: Ex-president Carter is considered by many to be more effective as an emissary than he was as president. [mitto, -ere, misi, missus - to send; to let go; emissarius, -i, m. - a scout; a spy]
~ Lesson 2 ~
1. exacerbate- 1) to make worse: The ointment, thought to have curative properties, did little more than exacerbate the inflammation. 2) to irritate (someone's feelings). [acer, acris, acre - sharp; fierce; exacerbo, -are, -avi, -atus - to irritate, provoke] Also: acerbate, exacerbation 2. patrimony - 1) an inheritance from oneís father; 2) an inherited characteristic: More resigned than I, my brother replied, "Baldness is our common patrimony, and we'll just have to live with it." [pater, -tris, m. - father; patrimonium, -i, n. - an inheritance from oneís father] Also: patrimonial 3. admonitory - serving to warn; warning: Mr. Baxter always adopts an admonitory tone of voice on the day before a test. [ad (prep. w/ acc.) - to, toward, near; moneo -ere, -ui, -itus - to warn, advise; admoneo, -ere, -ui, -itus - to remind, suggest; to urge] Also: admonish, admonishment, admonition 4. explicit - clearly stated, leaving nothing implied, definite, precise, unambiguous: Her explicit instructions having been disregarded, she had little choice but to reprimand her assistant. [plico, -are, -avi, -atus - to fold; explico, -are, -avi, -atus - to spread out; to disentangle] Also: explicitness 5. pessimist - a person who tends to look on the dark side of things and to expect the worst: The pessimist looks at life, sees suffering and death, and stops looking. [pessimus, -a, -um - worst] Also: pessimism, pessimistic 6. ameliorate - to make better; to improve: Are we Americans doing our best to ameliorate the living conditions of those who have very little? [melior, melius - better] Also: amelioration, meliorate, melioration 7. finite - 1) having definable or measurable limits or bounds; not infinite: Any finite number is infinitely less than infinity, isnít it? 2) said of verbs that are restricted by person, number, and tense; not an infinitive, gerund, or participle. [finis, -is, m. - an end, limit, border; pl., territory; finio, -ire, -ivi, -itus - to bound, limit, enclose] Also: finiteness, finitude, infinite, infinity 8. primacy - the state of being first in rank, importance, time, etc.: Papal primacy has been a principle of the Roman Catholic Church for many centuries; Eastern Orthodox churches do not acknowledge this primacy. [primus, -a, -um - first] 9. armistice - a temporary agreement to stop fighting, often followed by a signed peace treaty: Veterans Day was previously called Armistice Day in commemoration of the end of fighting in World War I. [arma, -orum, n. pl. - arms, weapons] 10. grievous -1) seriously bad; deplorable; atrocious: The acceptance of bribes and kickbacks by public officials is a grievous abuse of political power and ought to be punished accordingly. 2) causing suffering; severe. [gravis, -e - heavy; severe, serious] Also: grievance, grievousness 11. propound - to put forward for consideration; to propose: Each time the famous physicist propounds a new theory, scores of other physicists seek to prove or disprove it. [pono, -ere, posui, positus - to put, place; propono, -ponere, -posui, -positus - to display; to publish; to propose] Also: propose, proposition 12. beneficent - 1) kind: If all people were unconditionally beneficent, hitherto divisive factors like race, religion, and nationality would cease to divide, and there would be peace throughout the world--it sounds so easy. 2) giving benefits. [bene - well; facio, -ere, feci, factus - to do, make; beneficium, -i, n. - kindness] Also: benefice, beneficence, beneficial, beneficiary
~ Lesson 3 ~
1. incipient- (adj.) beginning; in the first stages: Waning classicism was contemporaneous with incipient romanticism, waning romanticism with incipient realism, etc., with each new literary movement overlapping its predecessor. [capio, -ere, cepi, captus - to take; to seize, capture; incipio, -ere, incepi, inceptus - to take to, begin] Also: incipience 2. recapitulate - to restate briefly, summarize: Having completed an exhaustive and exhausting three-hour presentation, she was asked by the chairman of the committee to recapitulate. [caput, -itis, n. - head] Also: recapitulation, recapitulatory 3. canine - of or like a dog: Canine units of police forces and of the military have been successful because of their dogs' faithfulness, keen scent, and intuitive sense of impending danger. [canis, -is, m. or f. - dog] Also: caninity 4. indubitable - unable to be doubted: In offering congratulations, the principal underscored the indubitable efforts of students and teachers alike. [dubito, -are, -avi, -atus - to doubt; to hesitate; indubitabilis, -e - not able to be doubted] Also: indubitability 5. repute - (n.) reputation; (v.) to suppose to be: She is reputed to be the brightest person in her class. [puto, -are, -avi, -atus - to think; reputo, -are, -avi, -atus - to calculate; to ponder; to reconsider] Also: reputable 6. communism - 1) an economic system in which all property is communal; 2) a system of government in which dictatorial leaders profess to be working towards a classless society in which goods are distributed equally to all: In Russia, formerly the largest state of the USSR, the replacement of communism by capitalism has met with major problems, including inflation and the rise of organized crime. [communis, -e - common, shared] Also: communist 7. intermittent - stopping and starting at intervals: The weather forecast for today includes intermittent showers. [mitto, -ere, misi, missus - to send; to let go; intermitto, -mittere, -misi, -missus - to leave vacant; to discontinue] Also: intermit, intermittence 8. seclude - to shut off from others; to cut off from public view: You can seclude your patio by surrounding it with tall shrubs. [claudo, -ere, clausi, clausus - to shut, close; secludo, -ere, seclusi, seclusus - to shut off, separate from others, seclude] Also: seclusion, seclusive, seclusiveness 9. consensus - a general agreement in opinion; a majority of opinion: The final arbiter of grammatical correctness in English is said to be the consensus of educated people. But who decides which people are educated? [sentio, -ire, sensi, sensus - to feel, realize; consensus, -us, m. - agreement, unanimity] Also: consensual 10. judicable - capable of being judged; likely to be judged: One cannot take questions of beauty before a civil judge; aesthetic disagreements are not judicable in a civil court. [iudico, -are, -avi, -atus - to judge] Also: judicative, judicature 11. credible - believable: The testimony of the eyewitness was perceived by the jurors to be credible. [credo, -ere, credidi, creditus - to believe, trust; credibilis, -e - worthy of belief; credible; incredibilis, -e - not believable, incredible] Also: credibility, incredibility, incredible 12. solarium - a glassed-in room or porch where people can sit or lie in the sun: To be able to use their new solarium after sunset, they will have shades installed. [sol, solis, m. - sun; solaris, -e - pertaining to the sun, solar]
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